Chromatography
permits a tremendous flexibility in the analytical technique itself, being
possible to control the mobile phase flow by gravity, pressure, capillary
action, and electro osmosis or to modify the shape of the separation system
from columns to flat plates. In summary, through its evolution, chromatography
has become one of the most important and necessary instrumental methods in
analytical laboratories and also the most widely used analytical separation
technique in chemistry and biochemistry.Food technology under extreme or
non-classical conditions is currently a dynamically developing area in applied
research and industry. Alternatives to conventional processing, preservation
and extraction procedures may increase production efficiency and contribute to
environmental preservation by reducing the use of water and solvents,
elimination of wastewater, fossil energy and generation of hazardous
substances. Within those constraints, “Green Food Processing” has to be
introduced on the basis of green chemistry and green engineering: “Green Food
Processing is based on the discovery and design of technical processes which will
reduce energy and water consumption, allows recycling of by-products through
bio-refinery, and ensure a safe and high quality product”. Consumers crave for food with
better nutritional quality, coupled with food safety and use of green
technology (Barba et al., 2016). The number of potential applications
for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) continues to grow globally, which is
verified through the increase in patents deposited in the last few years. It is
observed that its application is already part of the present scenery, being
mainly impelled by the growing demand of high quality products demand and
economy’s globalization. Besides that, it also stands out in its use in the
commerce of pharmaceutical, food, chemical and cosmetic materials. The increase
in the application of this technology in the industrial area is mainly due to
the selectivity, facility and separation capacity that the technique allows in
obtaining a great number of organic compounds, of which many are impossible or
nonviable to extract through traditional processes, or those whose purification
needs high resolution columns, not always available in the national market,
thereby making the utilization very costly. The high utilization of organic
solvents in the different industrial processes, such as fat and oil extraction,
obtaining bioactive functional compounds, removal of heavy metals, polymer
processing, fuel production, among others, represent a globally discussed
issue, due to the harm caused to the environment. In light of this picture, in
1987, the Montreal Protocol was introduced, and in 1997 the Kyoto Protocol,
which had as the main objective to restrict or eliminate the production and
utilization of solvents that cause harm to the ozone layer (Herrero et al., 2010). The great interest of the
scientific community and the industrial sector for supercritical fluid
extraction (SFE) is directly related to the restrictions to the use of organic
solvents, both in the preparative processes of samples used in the various
industries, and in a higher ecological consciousness in the use of different
analysis methods involving extraction. Food analysis has emerged as challenging
area in food processing  due to
emergence  of  the huge number of diverse compounds that
must be measured, including not only nutrients or compounds with bioactivity
but also contaminants, adulterants or illicit substances that are considered to
be harmful.This complexity has made chromatographic methods the most widely
used ones, as is seen by the large number of publications related to this topic.
The Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatograpghy are the most common and
well-established techniques. Nevertheless, in the last few years the use of
supercritical fluids has attracted increasing interest from researchers in the
food sector.

The
chromatographic technique most widely known as supercritical fluid
chromatography (SFC) came into existence in 1962. SFC has matured into a
well-understood, widely utilized, and high efficient technique over the past
five decades. The unique selectivity, short analysis times, low consumption of
organic solvents as well as the improvements in instrumentation have
contributed to expand its use. These characteristics make SFC a powerful tool
when food analysis requires individualized evaluation of several compounds in
very complex.The instrumentation used in SFC has achieved the same high quality
and robustness as HPLC, a remarkable improvement over the first several
generations of SFC systems. The development of stationary phases tailored for
SFC, such as the ethyl pyridine phase, continue to broaden the scope of SFC and
to facilitate novel applications

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