CMRJ300 Week 5 Name: Course: Date: CMRJ300 Week 5 Various methods are used in study of Criminal Justice and Criminology issues. Such include the basic types of research which are either qualitative or quantitative techniques. These two methods prove different inferences of solutions in a given stud within the field of criminal justice and criminology. These two methods provide coverage for all fields of a scientific investigation using both anecdotal data and mathematical principles.
Swatt, Marc L. in Fear of Crime, Incivilities, And Collective Efficacy in Four Miami Neighbourhoods uses quantitative approaches to examine and draw up a conclusion as to the main issue of fear of crime in the city of Miami and its neighbourhoods (Swatt, 2012). A measure of the number of individuals bothered by the increase of current rate of crimes would provide the needed information as to the fear of the population of Miami towards occurrences of criminal activities (Swatt, 2012). The author in his discourses uses study of location as a means of examining the collective efficacy and the developmental factors or dynamics of crime in the neighborhoods of Miami. Quantitative data such as resident surveys are used to provide a background of the various neighborhoods in Miami. Survey research is used as the main approach of examining the relationship between the crime rates and the stratifications based on race and social classes of the population and the inclination of such groupings towards criminal activities. General population information is provided which includes the racial distribution, number of residential housing and the approximate size of the neighborhoods in evaluation (Swatt, 2012). The use of survey research provides for the use of an appropriate means of data collection such as sampling strategy which is used in the study.
The sampling strategy was through the use of the mailing addresses derived from the United States Postal Service (USPS). Field surveys were administered to the selected addresses by house to house interviews. This provided direct information from the residences that were directly exposed to the incidences of crime in the city (Swatt, 2012). The term Fear of Crime was considered or termed as the key dependent variable in the analysis. It was measured by the use of the five Likert elements. The five Likert elements included victim of a burglary, having items stolen from outside their home, being the victim of a robbery, being the victim of an assault, or having people involve their family members in selling drugs (Swatt, 2012). The responses to the five Likert terms were provided in terms of ranges or ratings.
The results ranged from 1 = “Not worried” to 3 = “Very worried”. The results indicated a high level of internal inconsistency (? =.905) (Swatt, 2012). The principal axis factor provided a suggestion for a single factor solution.
The concluding measure was developed using the principal axis factor analysis solution and relatively elevated values illustrated higher levels of fear exhibited by the interviewees. Collective efficacy was also termed as a primary variable in the study. The results of the measure indicated a high level of internal inconsistency (? = .918) (Swatt, 2012). The present principal axis factor analysis recommended a two factor solution. However a single factor solution was maintained to ensure consistency.
The final measure was created using the principal axis factor analysis solution whereby the higher values illustrated a high level of perception of collective efficacy. Hence from the two quantitative approaches provided a platform for regression and bi-variate correlations. This would provide data as to the relationship between the collective efficacy, incivilities, and fear of crime.
Hence the information provided indicated a need for the formulation of policies unique to a neighbourhood towards the reduction of crime and the fear of the same which is exhibited the populace of a specific neighbourhood. This was attributable to uniqueness of a given neighbourhood (Swatt, 2012). Reference Swatt, M.
L. (2012). “Fear of Crime, Incivilities, and Collective Efficacy in Four Miami Neighbourhoods” Journal of Criminal Justice. 41(1). Pp 1-11.