COMPETENCYDEFINITIONThoseactivities and skills judgedessential to performthe duties of a specific position (Tas, 1988, p. 41).Competencies specify the how to perform a job tasks, or what the person needsto do the job successfully.
A briefoverview of the definition of managerial competencies Perhaps CH. Woodruffdefined this problem the best, when in his article: What is meant by acompetency he claims that managerialcompetence is used as an umbrella under which everything fits, what maydirectly or indirectly relate to job performance. He defines it as “a setof employee behaviors that must be used for the position that the tasks arisingfrom this position competently mastered.
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” According to him, the competentmanager must fulfill three basic conditions at the same time to fulfill theirtasks. Theseare to: 1. possess the knowledge, skills and abilities,which are needed to this behavior, 2.
be motivated to this behavior and be willingto spend the necessary energy, 3. have the possibility use this behavior inbusiness environments.( Kubeš, M., Spillerová, D.&Kurnický, R., 2004). Tounderstanding the concept of managerial competence and its the practical use,the best contribution is from Boyatzis, R.
E.( 1982). , According to him managerialcompetence consists of two components, which are different from each other. Oneof them is a task that is necessary to fulfill and the second are the skillsthat workers must have to fulfill the role at the required level. In otherwords, we distinguish between what we do and what behavior is needed to fulfillthe task in an excellent way. S.
Whiddett and S. Hollyford .( 2003), define managerial competencies as”sets of behaviors that enable individuals demonstrate the effectiveperformance of tasks within the organization.” N. Rankin says that “competencies areessentially the definition of expected performance, which should as a wholeprovide a complete picture of the most valuable behavior, values and rolesrequired for the success of the organization.” ARMSTRONG,M. & STEPHENS,T.
( 2008). perceive the managerial competence as: ?”any individual characteristic that can be measured or counted reliablyand that can demonstrate significant distinction between effective and ineffectiveperformance” ? “basic skill and have facility neededfor good work performance” ? “all personal traits related to thework, knowledge, skills and values which encourage people to doing their job well?. F.Hroník(2007). He defines a managerialcompetence as a “bunch of knowledge, skills, experience andcharacteristic, which support the achievement of the objective.
” F. Krontorád and M. Tr?ka(2005), define theconcept of managerial competence as “a combination of knowledge, skills,abilities and behaviors that an employee uses in carrying out their work andthey are critical to achieving results which are consistent with the strategicgoals of the organization. According to Lojda J, (2011), managerialcompetence is “the ability of the person (employee) to perform the job, tothe required extent and desired quality of a particular job or activity.”Managerial competencies also reflect the ability to flexibly react to thechanging conditions. In life, we encounter situations where workers are notaware of their managerial competencies, however they take the view that theyhave these competencies, even if they do not.
The authors of this articleargues that managerial competence perceive the ability, which effectivelyraises the characteristic behavior of the manager, whose results can beachieved above average performance for the manager position. 10 begin with, the word”competencies” today is a termthat has no meaning apart from the particular definition with whom one is speaking (Zemke, 1982). Some examples ofefforts to define the term from SMEs representing each of the groups in the sampling planinclude:• “The knowledge, skills, and attributes that differentiate high per- formers from averageperformers.”• “Competencies are notfundamentally different from traditionallydefined KSAOs (i.e., knowledge, skills,abilities, and other charac- teristics).”• It is a construct that helps “define level of skilland knowledge.”• “Observable,behavioral capabilities that are important for perform- ing keyresponsibilities of a role or job.
“• “Mishmash of knowledge, skills, and abilities and jobperformance requirements.”• “Ican’t.” Some of the more frequently cited definitions from the literature include:• A mixture of knowledge, skills, abilities, motivation, beliefs, val- ues, and interests (Fleishman, Wetrogen,Uhlman, & Marshall-Mies, 1995).• A knowledge, skill,ability, or characteristic associatedwith high performance on a job (Mirabile, 1997).• A combination of motives, traits, self-concepts,attitudes or values, content knowledgeor cognitive behavior skills; any individual char- acteristic that can bereliably measured or counted and that can be shown to differentiate superior from average performers (Spencer, McClelland, & Spencer, 1994).
• A writtendescription of measurable work habits and personal skills used to achieve work objectives(Green, 1999).Again, these definitionswere extracted from a number of different sources:· A cluster of related abilities, commitments, knowledge, andskills that enable a person (or an organization) to act effectively in a job orsituation.· Competencies refer to skills or knowledge that lead tosuperior performance.· Measurable skills, abilities and personality traits thatidentify successful employees against defined roles within an organisation· A competency is more than just knowledge and skills. It involves the ability to meet complex demands, by drawing on and mobilisingpsychosocial resources (including skills and attitudes) in a particularcontext.· A measurable pattern of knowledge, skills, abilities,behaviours, and other characteristics that an individual needs to perform workroles or occupational functions successfully.Competencies, therefore, may incorporate a skill, but areMORE than the skill, they include abilities and behaviours, as well asknowledge that is fundamental to the use of a skill.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKThe rise of knowledge on economy and socio-economictransformation of the societies have led knowledge to be the fundamental meansof wealth and prosperity (Drucker, 1993; Hope and Hope 1997; Bozbura, 2007).From the business perspective, knowledge seems to be a key factor fororganizations’ success in the long run (Mansell and When, 1998; Stewart, 2001;Tat and Hase, 2007). Due to that, leveraging the knowledge resourceseffectively and efficiently appears to be a vital issue in order to gain thecompetitive advantage and to ensure the sustainable development for thesocieties, as well as for the organizations (Nonaka, 1998; Davenport andPrusak, 1998; Storey and Barnett, 2000). In the knowledge economies, there is a shift from task-based approachesto competency-based approaches. Therefore, the popularity of competencymanagement systems has gained a special concern both from practitioners andacademicians (Clardy, 2008).
Competency management can contribute toorganizations knowledge base and increase the knowledge utilization capabilityof an organization. Hence, it became an important research object in the moregeneral area of knowledge management and is often integrated with learningmanagement systems (Draganidis and Mentas, 2006). Recent studies in this field, clarified thatindividual competency management is an area of research attracting efforts toleverage personal development, knowledge generation (Abou-Zeid, 2002),development (Bhatt, 2000), sharing (Sveiby, 2001), and utilization (Bender andFish, 2000), organizational learning, innovation and effectiveness (Malhotra,2000). In addition to beingregarded as a focal point for planning, organizing, integrating and improvingall aspects of knowledge management and human resource development systems.Competency management modeling is also regarded as an approach focused onimproving organizational performance. The main objective of this study is tocompose a useful individual competency model in services industries based onthe “ranking model” of employee competencies, which consists of three majordimensions: core competencies, managerial competencies and functional(task-related) competencies (Stephen and Uhles, 2012). Secondly, this study aimed to analyze theeffects of aforementioned dimensions of competencies to individual andorganizational performance.
Based on the provided data, 2679 questionnairescollected from 30 different companies of services industries in Turkey. Thedata analysis indicate that, there is a positive linear correlation betweenaforesaid key dimensions of competencies and both individual and organizationalperformance.There is a variety of research that clarify the relationshipbetween competencies and employees’ job (task) performance (McClelland, 1973;Liu, 200; Dainty, 2004; Levenson, 2006; Ryan, et.
al, 2009). For example,findings of Ahadzieet.al.’s (2009) study demonstrate the suitability andpotential usefulness of their competency-based model that reflects elements ofboth performance behaviors and outcomes in predicting the performance.Similarly, there are other research (Ryan et.al, 2009; Spencer, et.
al 2008)highlighting the validity and utility of competencies in predicting employees’work performance. Furthermore, there arestudies that indicate the affects of certain competencies on individual jobperformance. For example Qiao and Wang, (2009) suggest that team-building,communication; coordination, execution and continual learning are criticalcompetencies for the success of middle managers in China. Likewise, thereempirical evidences indicating the relationship between competencies such asHRM (Fleury and Fleury 2005; Liu, et.al, 2005; Collings, et.
al 2010, Anwar,et.al, 2012), leadership (Clark and Armit, 2010; Asree, et. al, 2010; Pereiraand Gomez, 2012). The relationshipbetween individual competencies and organizational performance is also stated.However, there are less empirical evidences found in this issue (Levenson,et.al, 2006, Ryan, et.al.
2009; Gammie and Joyce, 2009). On the other side, despite the increasingtendency in using competency models, there are still some confusion andskepticism about the relation between competencies and performance. These aremainly because of the difficulties in assessment of competencies (Currie andDarby, 1995) and the complex and lengthy process required for identifying theappropriate competency performance relationship (Vakola, et. al., 2007).
Inaddition to that organizational performance has many dimensions, yet it is noteasy to connect individual competencies to organizational performance (Liu, et.al., 2005; Vakola et.al. 2007).
The concept of “competency” is a confusing term andparticularly mixed up with “skill”. It is mainly because different terms haveoften been used interchangeably. From the management perspective, competenciesare defined by two main streams: organizational or personal. Human ResourceManagement (HRM) literature focuses on the individual competencies.
McClelland(1973) used the term as a symbol for an alternative approach to traditionalintelligence testing. According to author, competence is a characteristic traitof a person that is related to superior performance and a demonstration ofparticular talents in practice and application of knowledge required to performa job. Boyatzis (2008) also analyzed managerial competencies and definedcompetencies as an underlying characteristic of a person that could be amotive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self-image, social role, or a body ofknowledge which he or she uses. These characteristics are revealed inobservable and identifiable patterns of behavior, related to job performanceand usually include knowledge, skill and abilities. In another definition,competencies are specified as a mean of ‘being able to perform a work role to adefined standard with reference to real working environments’. It is generallyseen as “a cluster of related knowledge, skills, and attitudes that affects amajor part of one’s job (a role or responsibility), that correlates withperformance on the job, that can be measured against wellaccepted standards,and that can be improved via training and development” (Özçelik and Ferman,2006). Dingle (1995), adds awareness to this definition. According to Dingle,competence is a combination of knowledge, skill and awareness.
In thisdefinition, knowledge refers to the understanding of fundamental principlesrequired to accomplish the task in hand, skill refers to the application ofthis understanding and awareness refers to the proper application of skill, inaccordance with professional and corporate “good practice”. In addition, Pateet.al (2003), distinguish individual competencies from the epistemologicalstandpoint as rationalist and objectivist. From rationalist perspective,competence is a specific set of attributes used in performing a job.
Inrationalist perspective there is a distinction between job and worker. Thus,job oriented side of competence is associated with characteristics of highperforming employee such as motives traits and social skills that can belearned through education, experience or vocational training. Task orientedaspect of competence, on the contrary, deals with the behavior of particularindividuals and how they act in organizational environment. From thesubjectivist perspective, worker and work are considered as one entity.Accordingly, competency is composed of a person’s experiences and personalitycombined with job related factors that stem from formal and informal organization.Hence, this approach focuses on the interaction between the individual and thejob, thereby, taking into account what the individual brings to the job and thecharacteristics of the job itself.
Behavioural Competencies Life skills are problem solving behaviours used appropriately and responsiblyin the management of personal affairs. They are a set of human skillsacquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems andquestions commonly encountered in daily human life. Examples are:Communication, Analytical Ability, Problem Solving, Initiative, etc. There are nine behavioural competencies,splitinto three overarching groups: Working withOthers, DeliveringResults and Focusing on theFuture. Eachcompetency has a descriptor to givean overview of whatitmeans.
Each of the overarching areas contains threecompetencies, each split into four levelsof achievement.Functional (or Technical) Competencies Functional Competencies relate to functions, processes, and roles within theorganisation and include the knowledge of, and skill in the exercise of,practices required for successful accomplishment of a specific job ortask. Examples are: Application Systems Development, Networking andCommunication, Database Analysis and Design, etc.Professional Competencies Professional competencies are competencies that allow for success in anorganisational context.
They are the accelerators of performance or – iflacking in sufficient strength and quality – are the reason people fail toexcel in jobs. Examples are: Business Environment, Industry andProfessional Standards, Negotiation, People Management, etc.TheOECDproposesthreecategories ofcompetenciesneeded tooperatesuccessfullyintheknowledge economy:? Actingautonomously:buildingandexercisingasenseofself,makingchoicesandactinginthe context ofalargerpicture,beingoriented towardthefuture,beingaware oftheenvironment,understandinghowonefitsin,exercisingone’srightsandresponsibilities,determiningand executingalife plan, planningandcarryingoutpersonal projects.? Usingtoolsinteractively:usingtoolsasinstrumentsforanactivedialogue;beingawareofnewtools;accommodatingtothepotentialofnewtools;beingabletouselanguage,text,symbols,informationandknowledge,andtechnologyinteractivelytoaccomplishgoals.? Functioninginsociallyheterogeneousgroups:beingabletointeracteffectivelywithotherpeople, includingthosefromdifferentbackgrounds;recognizingthesocialembeddnessofindividuals; creatingsocialcapital;beingabletorelatewelltoothers,tocooperate,andtomanageand resolveconflict.