ComputerAided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD / CAM) is the hardware andsoftware systems that can be used to design a process. Engineers use CAD / CAMtools at various stages of product development. For beginning, construct the designswith blueprints and then actually create or assemble physical products andcomponents with computer-controlled equipment. CAD/ CAM is a major part of many physical manufacturing processes. Widely used inmetal processing and industrial manufacturing.
This technology not onlyprovides conceptual planning for planning CAD / CAM software for construction,construction, but also for other areas of physical building templates.Well-planned CAD / CAM interfaces can help engineers understand the processes thatthey create and work more efficiently. The CAD / CAM software typicallyincludes 3D models that facilitate the display of more contract structureelements on multiple displays. By combining technical drafting with 3D, the CAD/ CAM interface becomes more qualify and capable with all engineering sector.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)refers to the use of computer-controlled machines. CAM is widely used in all sectorof industrial, not just electronic products. CAM improves manufacturing andproduction efficiency by increasing production speed, raw material consistencyand more accurate machining accuracy, reducing waste and energy. CAM uses computer-drivenmanufacturing processes to automate management, material tracking, planning andshipping. CAM also implements advanced productivity tools such as simulationand optimization to leverage expertise. Moreover, CAM is often associated withCAD for more enhanced and streamlined manufacturing, efficient design andsuperior mechanical automation. As a process, CAM is used after Computer Aided Design (CAD).
Models designed with CAD are sometimes used as CAM inputs. Therefore, it iscalled CAD-CAM. The features of the combination software divided into two maincategories: Manufacturing Planning In this process, the computer delivers information for production planning as well as management. This may include: § Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) § Computer Assisted NC Part Programming § Computerized Machinability Data System § Work Standards Development § Inventory and Production Planning Manufacturing Control In the process, the computer is used to manage and control the physical operations of the manufacturing plant. This may include: § Shop Floor Controlling § Process Monitoring and Controlling § Inventory Controlling § Production Delivery Controlling The machine for CAM needs programming.
If the product isdesigned using computer-aided design (CAD), computer software can analyze thedrawing and create a control program. This can save hours of manual programmingtime. This link between CAD and CAM is called Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM). 2.
0 Introduction of Computer NumericalControl (CNC) Allmachines in the CAM use Computer Numerical Control (CNC). CNC as machinethat operated by numerical (digital) control, in which the software program isspecified to control the object. These numbersprovide all the commands that need. The language of CNC machining calledG- code, is written to control the various machine behaviors such as speed,feed rate, coordination and so on. These areusually stored as programs in the machine.CNC machining is the pre-programmed computer software thatdetermines the manufacturing process of the industrial tools and machinery andits fully run automated. The 2D or 3D CAD drawing and dimensionsfor a given part are set into place with computer-aided design (CAD) softwareand then converted into an actual finished product with computer-aidedmanufacturing (CAM) software.
After the procedure is inputted, the operatorcarries on the trial operation, to make sure the code does not appear anymistake.The position control in CNC machining isdetermined by the open-loop or closed-loop system. In the former, the signalruns single direction between the controller and the motor. In a closed-loopsystem, the controller can receive the feedback and making error correctionpossible. Therefore, closed-loop systems can correct for speed and positionthat irregularities.The movement is usually directed to the Xand Y axes in CNC machining. The process can be run through open-loop controlonce the force and speed are minimal. However, closed-loop control is necessaryto ensure the speed, consistency and accuracy required for industrial applicationssuch as metal products.
Below are the few types of CNC Machines that can beapplied in marine industries and ship technology: – i. CNC Mills ii. Lathes iii. Plasma Cutters iv. Water Jet Cutters 3.0 LinkingBetween CAD/CAM and CNC Machine CAD is a software that helpsprogrammers draw and design products, while CAM is a software that helpsoperators run CNC machines. CAD and CAM work together as a system.
This meansthat drawings made in CAD will be automatically configured in CAM. Beforeintegrating a CAD / CAM system, CAM must recreate the CAD system-generatedmodel to create the program. Now, once the machining operation is specified bythe operator, the CAM automatically creates the CNC program.When using a CAD / CAM system,programmers can do all the programming on the computer and operator can run asimulation on the screen to prove that the program is working properly.
Alsodownload the verified program to the CNC machine. The operator now can specifythe desired machining operation and the CAM system integrates these operationsinto the CNC program.In addition, the link between CAD /CAM software and CNC machines increases productivity by:• Automaticallyconvert design into machine controller instructions on the machine.• Makethe program can be modified to other jobs with similar specifications.
The processflow chart linked between CAD/CAM and CNC.4.0 Advantageand Disadvantage of CAD/CAM Advantage Disadvantage Helps to reduce material wastage. More expensive than manual machines Automatic specification checking. Difficult to motivate quality. Speeds up production. Take a long time to write the program to operate Software flexibility and Design flexibility.
(CAM able to machine difficult shapes.) Software Complexity. 5.0 Advantageand Disadvantage of CNC Advantage Disadvantage Low maintenance and more safety.
More expensive than manually operated machines. More Capability. Mistakes related with part programming. Less skilled or trained people can operate CNC machines unlike manual lathes and milling machines which need skilled engineers. Less workers are required to operate the CNC machine compared to manually operated machines. Unemployment may result due to investment in CNC machine tools. Excellent surface finishing. – 6.
0 Applicationsthat controlled by Computer-aided Manufacturing i. Flameand plasma cutting ii. Lasercutting iii. Holepunching or drilling iv. Bending v.
Sawing vi. Spinning vii. Pinningviii. Routingand milling 7.
0 Applicationsthat controlled by CNC Machining in Ship Technology Construction of Mold · The hull is the foundation of all ships. The CNC machine generates a precise, uniform mold through electronic programming and is tested before an error occurs. · CNC machining offers versatility that enables manufacturers to use a wide range of materials.
Hull and Deck Trimming · Forming hull and deck structures is just the beginning. The structures must be properly connected without any gaps, uneven lines or movements. It may be a difficult process to determine the correct alignment of the connections with these structures “free”. · 5 axis CNC machines can easily and efficiently trim excess material in even the largest structures while perfectly matching all the parts. Ribs and Stringers · Ribs and stringers are wood lengths that form the “bone” of the hull. These components enhance the hull’s strength and help it retain its shape.
· Stringers and ribs often require mass production of templates and take up storage space through work-in-process inventories. · CNC allow for wood processing, optimizing throughout while accommodating the movement and placement of non-linear edges. Interior Furnishings · Luxury yachts and sailing often have the same furniture as luxury apartments and apartments. A typical layout may include galley kitchen, luxurious wrap-around seats and beautiful wood cabinets.
· All these projects and more can easily create a CNC machine. The system accommodates complex designs ranging from clean lines to wood, stone and various materials. 8.
0 Conclusion In 21st century, CAD/CAM software helps the engineers to complete their taskor project easily and efficiency. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is a termused to describe the use of a computerized system to control the operation of amanufacturing plant. Its helps to improve the time to market and create precisedimensions as well.
Likewise, CNCmachining also brings the marine industry with unparalleled levels ofefficiency and precision.