Conception problems can be caused by ovulation disorders.Ovulation disorders can cause the woman to never ovulate in their life or rarelyovulate during their cycles, which can make it impossible or very difficult forthe woman to get pregnant naturally.

 Ovulation disorders include: –      PCOS(Polycystic ovary syndrome)/Stein-Lerenthal syndrome – PCOS is when theovaries function abnormally, it causes abnormally high levels of androgen andirregular periods which means the ovaries don’t release eggs regularly. PCOS isthe most common causes of infertility in females.-      Prematureovarian failure/Primary ovarian insufficiency – This is when the woman’sovaries do not function normally before the age of 40, which causes reducedamounts of oestrogen to be produced and irregular ovulation.  Hyperprolactinemia, poor egg quality, overactive thyroidgland, underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions (e.g.

AIDS, cancer) canalso result in ovulation disorders and conception problems.  Erectiledysfunction/Impotence: Erectile dysfunction is when the penis cannot develop ormaintain an erection during sexual interactions, therefore preventingintercourse form taking place. This may be caused by atherosclerosis, diabetes,a faulty vein, hormonal imbalances or operations that have resulted inimpotence.

Erectile dysfunction can cause conception problems as it causes theinability of sperm to be delivered to the egg, which means that it is difficultfor the egg to be fertilised in a natural way.However erectile dysfunction can be treated with medicationssuch as Levitra, Viagra and Cialis which can enable the penis to develop andmaintain an erection for sexual activity, therefore increasing the ability forthe sperm to be delivered to the egg and conception occurring. Blocked/Damagedfallopian tubes: A blocked or damaged fallopian tube can prevent thetransportation of the egg to the sperm or the fertilized egg to the uteruswhich means that the egg cannot develop. This can cause conception problems asit makes it difficult for the egg to become fertilised naturally.However there are surgeries that can be done to fix theblocked or damaged fallopian tube such as Tubal reanastomosis, Salpingostomyand Fimbrioplasty. These surgeries take place depending on where the damaged orblocked part of the fallopian tube is.

A surgery called Salpingectomy can alsobe done to improve the IVF success rate. There is also a nonsurgical procedurecalled Selective Tubal Cannulation that can fix blockage in the fallopian tube.  Menopause: Menopause is when a female’s period stops, this usuallyoccurs between the ages of 45 and 55 years.

Menopause causes the inability forfemales to conceive naturally due to the fact that they stop producing eggs.  Infertility Problems There are many factors that can cause or increase therisk of infertility in males and females, this includes: –      Smoking-      Consumption of alcohol-      Over exercising or not exercising at all-      STIs-      Being obese or overweight-      Being vegan-      Eating disorders such as anorexia –      Mental stress-      Age – The older the man/woman the less fertilethey are likely to be. AntispermAntibodies Sperm antibodies are found in both women and men. Theseantibodies can affect the viability of the sperm and prevent the sperm frommoving which means the sperm cannot fertilise the egg.

Sperm antibodies areformed if the barrier (formed by Sertoli cells) between the blood and spermbreaks meaning that the immune system will respond to the sperm and try todestroy them. This can cause infertility problems. Sperm disorders Oligospermia – Oligospermiais when a male has a low sperm count which causes infertility problems. To befertile a male must have a healthy sperm count, the average being above 15million sperm per millilitre.

If a male has a sperm count lower than theaverage amount he may be diagnosed with oligospermia. A mild case ofoligospermia is 10 to 15 million sperm/mL, a moderate case of oligospermia is 5to 10 million sperm/mL, and a severe case of oligospermia is 0 to 5 millionsperm/mL. Oligospermia may mean that it takes more attempts to conceive thanusual. Oligospermia can be caused by things such as infections, the use ofdrugs and alcohol, weight problems and overheating testicles. Asthenospermia – Asthenospermiais the decrease of motility of sperm. This means that the sperm are poorquality and do not move normally or at all which can prevent the sperm fromfertilising the egg. Asthenospermia can be caused by things such as the use ofdrugs, smoking or a poor diet.

 Teratospermia – Teratospermiarefers to abnormally shaped sperm cells. A sperm must have an oval-shaped head,a cap covering the head, a normally shaped neck and midpiece with a tail to beable to fertilize and egg successfully. A male with teratospermia may havesperm with two tails, a neck and midpiece defect or a tail defect which maymake it unable for the sperm to swim towards the egg therefore it cannot befertilised. Teratospermia can be caused by things like smoking, alcohol use,infections and exposure to heat.  Azoospermia – Azoospermiais a male condition which refers to the absence of sperm in the semen  Assisted conception IVF (In VitroFertilisation) – IVF is a technique that is used to help people withfertility problems have a baby. An egg from the woman or donor’s ovaries isremoved and placed in a petri dish, a sperm from the man or donor is alsoplaced in the same petri dish so that it fertilises the egg.

The fertilised eggis then placed into the woman’s womb so that it can develop. IUI (Intrauterineinsemination) – IUI is a technique used to increase the chances offertilisation. It is when sperm is placed inside the woman’s uterus tofertilise the egg.

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