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2A2………………………………………………………………4A3………………………………………………………………8A4……………………………………………………………….13Reference………………………………………………………..14 SectionAA1)a)      Twoor more freely interacting people (interdependent-interact and influence eachother), mutually accountable for achieving common goals is called group. Thegroup has a broader meaning.

A group of passengers on a flight have a commoncharacteristic- to travel, but they are not necessarily working towards acommon cause. Groups do not even need to refer to people, for example, a groupof products in a supermarket, in this case the group is arbitrary and could bedefined by any number of variables. b)      •clear objective: Josehas a common goal to achieve the object. He had a assigned personnel task foreach company. So it will be easy to start to produce the product. •Good decision making process:Asuccessful group follows a procedure to make decision and solve the problem. Inthe company they should have a good communication skills to communicate eachother. So in this situation if Jose is facing in trouble then they cancommunicate to each other to solve the problem.

 •Good team work Foreach company Jose gave different task for each companies. So it will be easy tofinish the work early.   c)      Organizationfunction·        Generate new orcreative ideas and solution·        Accomplishcomplex, interdependent task that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.·        Coordinateinterdepartmental efforts.·        Provide a problemsolving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information andassessments.·        Implement complexdecisions·        Socialize andtrain newcomers.

 Individual function·        Satisfy theindividuals need for affiliation.·        Develop, enhance,and confirm the individual self-esteem and sense of identity.·        Give individualsan opportunity to test and share their perception of social reality.·        Reduce the individual’sanxieties and feeling of insecurity and powerlessness.·        Provide a problemsolving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. d)         ·        FormingForming is the stageswhen partners first come together. It has been described as the “honeymoon”period for a partnership because it is when partners are excited about thenewness and potential of the efforts. ·        StormingStorming is whenpartnership members stop being polite and start getting real.

This mightinvolve airing fundamental differences of opinion and approach among partners,struggling to figure out the objectives, roles and leadership in thepartnership and also feeling threatened by working with partners who you don’tknow, don’t trust of view as competitors. ·        NormingNorming is the stage whenroles and partners conflicts are sorted out and the partnerships focus turnstowards the work. Objectives and rules of engagement get clearer, a sense ofpartnership identify forms and conflict moves from among partners to betweenthe partners as a group and the problem they are trying to solve.  ·        PerformingPerforming is when the partnershipreaches a steady state where it can do the work it needs to do to achieve itsintended goals. A2) a)      Anyrelatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.Learning involves changes and it is relatively permanent and it is acquiredthrough experience. Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifyingexisting knowledge, behavior, skills or performance.

Evidence that learning hasoccurred may be seen in changes in behavior from simple to complex, from movinga finger to skill in synthesizing information or a change in attitude b)      Josereviewed the market for the new high-end, designer pet coffins that this taskforce was to develop the initial design parameters for the new product to meetincreasing demand around the world. Then Jose opened the meeting for thecomments and suggestion. Committee members began discussion to the benefits ofusing the existing design.

The Tex spoke up, he think that they should ought todo what Mariana suggested earlier. Marianas opinion was, “that they should beusing latest technology for processing. They will use the best woods availableand they should sell great”.

It make no sense to Tex to design new caskets whenthe existing design are good enough to do the job. But Jose said suchrecommendation would not be well received by the council of president. But Josewrite a memo to the council of president with the recommendation to useexisting design and to begin immediately to the design the plant and themanufacturing system. However, Jose knew it would anger the presidents.

He hopethat he will not be held the responsible for the action of the task force, evenif it was a chair also.              c)             Learning alwaysinvolves some kind of experience. These experience may be derived from insidethe body or they may be sensory, arising outside. Procedural learning concernsyour ability to carry out particular skilled action such as riding a horse.Declarative learning or knowing that concerns your store of factual knowledgesuch as an understanding of the history of use of the horse.        Thebehavioral changes that take place due to learning are relatively permanent.Behavior can be changed temporarily by many other factors and in ways which wewould not like to call learning.

These other factors include growing up ormaturation (in child), aging, drugs, alcohol and etc….       Learningcannot be observed directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and drawthe inference from it, that learning has taken place. A distinction has to bemade between learning and performance. Performance is evaluated by somequantitative measures of output.     d)    Theoriesof learning·        ClassicalconditionIt is a type ofcondition in which an individual responds to some stimulate that would notordinarily produce such a response.

It is an unconditioned stimulus,unconditioned response and conditioned stimulus, conditioned response. Theconditional stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becomingassociated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger aconditioned response.Example: supposethat when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of awhistle.   ·        OperantconditionIt is a type ofconditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a prevents apunishment. Operant condition is a learning process through which the strengthof a behavior is modified by reward or punishment. It is used to bring aboutsuch learning.

Example: thepaycheck at the end of the month is what motivates an average person to go towork every day. Here, the paycheck is the positive reinforce. Workplace oftenoffer bonuses for top employees for this very reason. The prospect of gettingrewards encourage everyone to work harder an produce better result. ·        Social-learningtheoryPeople can learnthrough observation and direct experience. The theory has often betweenbehaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention,memory and motivation.Example: A teenagermight learn slang by observing peers.

  ·        ShapingbehaviorSystematicallyreinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desiredresponse. Shaping is a condition paradigm used primarily in the experimentalanalysis of behavior.Example: Theprocess o establishing a behavior that is not leaned or performed by anindividual at present is referred to as shaping.

The method of reinforcingsuccessive approximate in order to teach a behavior has been found to beeffective in both humans and animals.                                   A3)a)       Attitudes are evaluative statements orjudgment concerning objects, people, or events. There are three components ofan attitude. They are:·        The opinion orbelief segment of an attitude·        An intention tobehave in a certain way towards someone or something·        The emotion orfeeling segment of an attitude   A predisposition or a tendency to respondpositively or negatively towards a certain idea,                          object, person or situation. Attitudeinfluences an individual’s choice of action, and responses to challenges,incentives and rewards.

 b)                If I’m in Jose position I would listento committee member’s action. Because then only Jose can do what people says.So people will respect to Jose. Good personality will relatively endurepatterns of thoughts, emotion and behavior along with the psychological processbehind those characteristics. So in front of committee members Jose has to verypolite and he should keep good personality. I think he should be responsiblefor the action of the task force. I think he should do something different likeMariana said that they should use latest technology process to do the work.

Sothen only they can finish the work early. Latest technology will be veryhelpful for doing the work. c)                  Leadership is the ability toinfluence others with or without authority. All the successful endeavors arethe result of human effort. But the ability to influence others is a derivationlike interpersonal communication, conflict management and problem solving.  Here are some characteristic of leadership:·        EmpathyCreating a legitimaterapport with your staff makes it less likely that personal issues andresentment can creep in and derail the group.

When your team knows that you areempathetic to their concerns, they will be more likely to work with you andshare in your vision rather than negative feelings. ·        HonestyAnother characteristic ofleadership that lends itself to credibility. Those who are honest, especiallyabout concerns, make it far more likely that obstacles will be addressed ratherthan avoided.

Honesty also allows for better assessment and growth. ·        CommunicationEffective communicationhelps keep the team working on the right projects with the right attitude. Ifcommunicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff willbe more likely to react and meet your goals. ·        FlexibilityNot every problem demandsthe same solution. By being flexible to new ideas and open-minded enough toconsider them, you increase the likelihood that you will set a good example foryour team and reward good ideas.

 ·        ConsistencyBeing a consistent leaderwill gain you respect and credibility, which is essential to getting buy-infrom the group. By setting an example of farness and credibility, the team willwant to act the same way. ·        Direction Having the vision tobreak out of the norm and aim for great things, then the wherewithal to set thesteps necessary to get there- is an essential characteristic of goodleadership.

By seeing what can be and managing the goals on how to get there, agood leader can create impressive change.  So being a good leaderthose characteristic is very important. The leader should be honest with themembers, and he should be communicate with them. An effective communicationwill help keep the team work on the right project. So being a good leader thosecharacteristic is really important.  d)     Influencedby nature·        Socialization,life experiences, learning also affect personality·        Personality isn’tstable at birth·        Stabilizes throughadolescence·        Executive functionsteers using our self-concept as a guide Influenced by nature·        Minnesota studies-twins had similar behavior patterns·        Heredity explainsabout 50 percent of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperament.    e)      Motivationis a process which begins with a physiological or psychological need ordeficiency with triggers behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or anincentive.Theories:·        Herzberg’s theory1)      Jobsatisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate concept with unique determinantsbased on work with accountants and engineers.

2)      Beingsatisfied with one’s job is equivalent to being motivated ” a satisfied workeris a motivate worker.            ·        Maslow’s theory1)      PhysiologicalPhysiological needs arethe biological needs required to preserve human life. These needs include needsfor food, clothing and shelter. These needs must be met at least partly beforehigher level needs emerge.

 2)      SafetyneedsOnce physiological needsare satisfied, the safety or security needs emerge and become dominant. Theseneeds imply the need for self-preservation and economic independence.  3)      Social/affiliationAfter the needs of thebody and security are satisfied them a sense of belonging and acceptancebecomes predominant in motivating behavior.

These needs are for love,friendship, exchange of feelings and grievance etc…    4)      EsteemneedsThese are concerned withawareness of self-importance and recognition from others. Esteem needs consistof such things as self -confidence, self-respect, independence, power,prestige, achievement, praise and status. 5)      Self-ActualizationIt involves self-fulfillment or achieving what one considers to become everything, what oneconsiders to be his mission in life.                                                                               ·        X and Y theory 1)      TheoryX·        People who dislikework and will try their level best to avoid doing it·        Because they don’tlike their jobs they should be constantly controlled, reprimanded and coercedin order to achieve the organizations objectives·        Workers will avoidresponsibilities and will always wait for formal instructions to work.·        Most workersdesire security. It is almost on their priority list compared to other workrelated factors. They are also unambitious.

 2)      TheoryY·        People view workas something natural, like rest and play·        People will directthemselves if they are committed to the organizational objectives·        Workers will bemore committed to the organizational objectives when they are rewarded. Anaverage worker will learn o accept and seek responsibility·        Normal humanbeings with imagination and ingenuity are innovative and creative.   A4)Leadershipmeans it is the ability to influence others, with or without authority. Allsuccessful endeavors are the result of human effort. MahaatmaaMohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the leader of the Indian independence movementagainst British rule.

He was born on October 2, 1869, Porbandarin India. Hedied January 30, 1948, New Delhi, India. About his education, he studied atAlfred High School in 1887, UCL Faculty of Laws and Samaldas Arts College. Hegot an awards like “Times Person of the Year. Gandhiis a Transformational Leader.

Transformation leaders are inspirational,trustworthy and charismatic role models who lead by example (The PachamamaAlliance). They are those who inspire team members to give their best, whichgreatly motivates team and increase the chances of succeeding. Finally, theyhave a strong vision, which guides them in process of making a change. Gandhiled his followers greatly by example, and being humble: by living in poorconditions, just like millions of people in India.

They could relate to him,and this inspired them to give their best effort in order to make a difference.Atransformational leader make other people feel confident and powerful, whichwasn’t the case of the Indians, since they were under the rule of the British.Gandhi empowered all these people to believe in themselves and feel influentialin the change they were trying to create.MahatmaGandhi was a very empowering and Visionary leader. Mahatma Gandhi wasempowering leader only because he empowered all Indians on a salt march tocorrupt the British economic system. Since he was pioneer of Satyagraha, healso inspired all Indians to understand and learn resistance throughnon-violent civil disobedience, he is something more than a mere politicians.

He is great statesman and a man of vision. Inconclusion, Gandhi had already been recognized through his work and movementsin South Africa. People already had a great honor and hopes from him due to whathe had achieved, his non-violent methods were also very well respect within theIndian society.   Reference·        https://en.m.wikipedia.org·        https://sites.google.com·        https://www.mindtools.com·        https://study.com·        https://contactzilla.com·        https://www.verywell.com·        https://en.m.wikipedia.org 

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