Critically interpret the literature on the new paradigm for training adaptations – train low/compete highWhen it comes to athletic performance, individuals are highly dependent on carbohydrates (CHO) for fuel. Within the human body, CHO stores are finite and only sufficient to fuel ~3h of continuous, sub-maximal exercise (70-80% maximal oxygen uptake VO2max), with fatigue and impairment of exercise capacity being evident with depletion of CHO reserves (Burke and Hawley, 2002). Athletes are challenged with the requirement for a wide variety of complex characteristics that under pin success in sporting events, varying from short duration (e.g. sprints) to prolonged duration (e.g.
Ultra-marathons or Tour de France). The role of training is to accumulate physiological adaptations to improve athletic characteristics that underpin success through nutrition and exercise (Burke, 2015). More specifically, endurance athletes are interested in strategies to reduce their rate of glycogen use during exercise. Nutritional strategies are employed to optimise athletic performance including CHO-loading (Hawley et al., 1997), consuming a CHO-rich meal prior to exercise (Hawley and Burke, 1997) and consuming CHO throughout an event (Coyle et al., 1986), all of which have been shown to enhance endurance performance. An alternative method to enhance exercise capacity involves utilisation of a different fuel source, fat. Even found within the leanest athlete, fat stores are abundant and provide the ability to fuel exercise lasting at least several days (Burke and Hawley, 2002).
Evidence suggests that a classic response to exercise in athletes is the ability to oxidise fat, therefore a high fat diet has been suggested as a strategy to utilise fat and augment fat oxidation (Burke and Hawley, 2002). There is widespread publicity for fat adaptation amongst athletes however when interpreting data from studies evaluating the effect of fat adaption results often do not support a perceived performance benefit whilst there are frequent methodological flaws. This paper critically evaluates the literature on this paradigm for training adaptation and the effects of fat adaptation strategies. Fat-Adaption pre-exercise:There is evidence to suggest that short term fat adaptation is detrimental to athletic performance due to the reduction in resting muscle glycogen without compensation for reduced CHO availability (Burke et al., 2001). Appendix one outlines the results from studies evaluating the effects of short term fat adaptation prior to exercise.
Okano et al., (1996) studied the effect of a high-CHO meal (HCM) and high-fat meal (HFM) given 4 hours before a cycling protocol concluding that there was no significant difference between diet plans when measuring heart rate, oxygen consumption and perceived exertion during exercise however respiratory exchange ratio in HCM group was significantly higher during the first 40 minutes of exercise alongside a significantly higher serum insulin level at the start of exercise. These results are suggestive that a single HCM and HFM given 4 h before exercise influences fuel utilization in the initial stages of prolonged cycling, but these meals may have little effect on endurance capacity.Similarly, Whitley et al., (1998) found increased plasma insulin levels during exercise alongside increased plasma epinephrine and growth hormone concentrations however despite these differences in substrate and hormone concentrations, a high-fat meal prior to exercise failed to alter fuel utilisation during 90 minutes moderate intensity exercise as substrate oxidation during endurance exercise is remarkably resistant to alteration.Fat-Adaptation <3 days:The idealisation of a high-fat, low-CHO diet for <3 days is to reduce glycogen stores within the muscle and liver (Bergstrom, Hermansen, Hultman and Saltin, 1967).
Appendix two outlines results from studies evaluating the effects of short term fat adaptation.Lima-Silva et al., (2013) found that a low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%). Despite there being no evident effect on the plasma concentration of insulin, glucose and peak potassium (K+) levels, it is questionable whether the lack of readily available resources to replenish ATP lead to an increased speed of loss of K+ from the muscle which as a result would explain the reduced time to exhaustion in the low-CHO group. Dietary records were the method of choice for data collection which leaves room for bias and systematical error of results (Tooze et al.
, 2012). It is questionable whether this study allows participants long enough to see physiological changes within the body, and if not, what is the optimal period of time for fat adaptation to occur? Evidence is suggestive that a high-fat, low-CHO diet (<72hour period) is detrimental to exercise and endurance performance. This is likely as a result from the premature depletion of muscle glycogen stores and there being no valuable increase in capacity for fat utilisation in order to compensate for the lack of availability of CHO fuel (Burke and Hawley, 2002). However, due to current research only using such small sample sizes and with the mentioned study consisting of only males it is un-reliable to generalise these results to the general population. Fat-Adaptation >5 days:It is thought that a longer period of fat adaptation through the implementation of a high-fat, low-CHO diet (>6 days) may allow for metabolic adaptations to enhance rates of fat oxidation and compensate for reduced CHO availability (Burke and Hawley, 2002). Appendix three outlines the effects of fat adaptation studies for >5 days.
Despite this idealisation, Burke et al., (2017) concluded that a fat adaptation diet is not optimal for performance benefits in elite athletes. Results demonstrated that despite improvements being evident in peak aerobic capacity, performance was impaired in elite endurance athletes’ due to reduced exercise economy.
However, there was a limited duration of the study to only 3 weeks alongside the application of slightly hypocaloric diets. Similarly, Paoli et al., (2012) also found no significant differences when comparing a modified ketogenic diet in elite artistic gymnasts, however there are several methodological flaws evident within the study. It is questionable whether the strength tests used were hard enough to challenge the gymnasts in order to see physiological changes. Adaptation to ketogenic diet is thought to take 4-6 weeks therefore a longer period to study the physiological effects is recommended.
Body fat was measured through use of skin folds however DEXA would have produced more reliable results due to the low-CHO diet consisting of diuretics and the fact that diuretics reduce skin-folds. Hulston et al., (2010) found that fat oxidation was utilised under low glycogen training which demonstrates that the body does not need to rely on CHO consumption to fuel performance. However, this way of training may be counter-productive for anaerobic athletes as no improvement in performance was seen, despite the physiological changes.
Whilst results from this study do not apply to athletes other than cyclists. In a study conducted looking at fat adaption in Taekwondo athletes, despite there being no improvement in performance, Rhyu and Cho (2014) found that a ketogenic diet (high-fat, low CHO) is helpful for weight category athletes as after 3 weeks, weight, % body fat, BMI and lean muscle decreased. In contrast to these findings, Cochran et al.
, (2015) saw an improvement in performance, however further research needs to be conducted to see if these results can be carried over into highly-trained individuals. A well-publicised study conducted by Phinney et al., (1983) took 5 well-trained cyclists who consumed a fat adaption diet over a 4-week period followed by completion of a ride to exhaustion..Results demonstrated that four subjects showed minimal changes and impairment in exercise capacity post high-fat diet, however one cyclist demonstrated an abnormally large improvement in performance, thus altering overall results.
It is difficult to apply results to high intensity endurance events or sprints due to the protocol being undertaken at fixed submaximal workload, only equivalent to ultra-endurance events. A cross-over design study by Lambert et al., (1994) evaluated the effects of a 2-week fat adaption diet on trained cyclists during multiple cycling protocols however it is difficult to isolate the effects of the different dietary protocols on performance due to two different cycling protocols having been applied. Furthermore, the cycling protocol used within the study makes it hard to relate to real-life sporting events. Goedecke et al., (1999) also failed to demonstrate improved performance, however, despite lack of improvement in performance, a major finding from the study demonstrated that rates of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise were increased following only 5 days of a high-fat diet (Goedecke et al.
, 1999). This finding is key as it is suggestive that only after a relatively small period of dietary adaptation to a high-fat diet, there is a metabolic shift, increasing fat utilisation which would be far better tolerated by athletes than a prolonged period of fat adaption. Fat-Adaption combined with CHO restoration:Despite the current lack of evidence for short term fat adaption improving performance, it is thought that the restoration of glycogen following a period of fat-adaption could theoretically provide athletes with the opportunity to tap into both glycolytic and lipolytic pathways during exercise and thus enhance fuel provision (Hawley and Hopkins, 1995). Appendix four outlines studies examining the effects of a high-fat, low-CHO in combination with CHO restoration. Havemann et al, (2006) hypothesised that a LCHF strategy would create a glycogen-sparing effect when in contrast, it compromised high-intensity 1-km sprint performance in 8 well-trained cyclists despite fat oxidation being evident. It is questionable whether this was due to increased sympathetic activation, altered contractile function and/or the inability to oxidise the available carbohydrate during the high intensity sprints (Havemann et al., 2006).
Consuming high levels of fat created a greater reliance on fat and reduced CHO oxidation which persisted despite 1 day of CHO loading (Havemann et al., 2006). An advantage to this study is how the authors included high-intensity sprints alongside endurance exercise (mean power output during 1-km sprints >90% of Wpeak) which allowed for the simulation of race conditions and thus becoming representative to real-life sporting events. Findings are consistent with Burke et al., (2000) and Carey et al. (2001), who also demonstrated an increase in fat oxidation with a short-term high-fat diet that persisted even after restoration of CHO levels (Havemann et al., 2006).
Carey et al., (2001) demonstrated that fat oxidation increased during prolonged submaximal exercise, however, despite the sparing of CHO, this study failed to detect a significant benefit to performance of a 1-h TT. A logical conclusion for this could be contributed to there being too small sample size creating an ergogenic effect and as a result of small sample size being unable to exclude type II error. Whilst the use of dietary records has the potential for bias and miss-reporting, and more predominantly, under-reporting which was the method of data collection (Tooze et al., 2012)Burke et al.
, (2000) measured muscle glycogen levels over a 5 day-period of fat-adaptation concluding that 1 day of rest and CHO loading was sufficient to restore muscle glycogen levels to above baseline whilst resulting in a significant reduction in muscle glycogen utilisation during a 120-min cycle at ~70% max O2 consumption. In contrast to Havemann et al., (2006) both studies conducted by Carey et al., (2001) and Burke et al., (2001) did not simulate race conditions as in order to do so, high intensity sprint bouts (>90% of Wpeak) are integral to performance.Conclusion:The current paper has discussed the use of fat adaption over varying periods of time and despite the enhanced capacity of utilisation of an abundant fuel source, fat adaptation does not appear to improve exercise capacity or performance.
This may be allocated to significant methodological flaws conducted within studies with type II statistical error and a failure to detect small change being a common flaw evident. A critic highlighted from all studies discussed within this paper is the small sample size used, making it hard to detect small changes and difficulty making results representative to the general population. Type II statistical error may also occur due to poor reliability of the performance protocols whilst findings are limited to the specific protocols used within studies. Another issue is that benefits are limited to specific individuals.
ReferencesBurke, L., Ross, M., Garvican-Lewis, L., Welvaert, M., Heikura, I., Forbes, S., Mirtchin, J.
, Cato, L., Strobel, N., Sharma, A., and Hawley, J.
(2017). Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers. J Physiol, 595(9), 2785-2807. Burke, L., Hawley, J., Angus, D., Cox, G.
, Clark, S., Cummings, N., Desbrow, B.
, and Hargreaves, M. (2002) . Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34(1), 83-91. Bergstrom, J.
, Hermansen, L., Hultman, E., and Saltin, B. (1967). Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance.
Acta Physiol. Scand. 71, 140-150.Burke, L.
(2015). Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did we Call the ‘Nail in the Coffin’ Too Soon? Sports Med, 45(1), S33-S49.Burke, L.
, and Hawley, J. (2002). Effects of short-term fat adaptation on metabolism and performance of prolonged exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34(9), 1492-8. DOI: 10.1249/01.MSS.
0000027690.61338.38 Carey, A., Staudacher, H.
, Cummings, N., Stepto, N., Nikolopoulos, V., Burke, L., and Hawley, J. (2001). Effects of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on prolonged endurance exercise.
J Appl Physio, 91, 115-122. Cochran, A., Myslik, F.
, MacInnis, M., Percival, M., Bishop, D., Tarnopolsky, M., and Gibala, M. (2015).
Manipulating Carbohydrate availability between twice-daily sessions of high-intensity interval training over 2 weeks improves time-trial performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25, 463-470 DOI:?http://dx.doi.
, Coggan, A., Hemmert, M., and Ivy, J. (1986). Muscle glycogen utilisation during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate.
J. Appl. Physiol. 61:165–172, 1986. ? Godecke, J., Christie, G., Wilson, G, et al.
(1999). Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat dieit in endurance cyclists. Metabolism, 48, 1509-1517.Havemann, L., West, S., Goedecke, J., et al. (2006).
Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate-loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance. J Appl Physiol, 100,194–202. Hawley, J., and Hopkins, W.
(1995). Aerobic glycolytic and aerobic lipolytic power systems: a new paradigm with implications for endurance and ultra-endurance events. Sports Med,19, 240-250.
?Hawley, J., Schabort, E., Noakes, T.
, and Dennis, S. (1997).?Carbohydrate loading and exercise performance: an update. Sports Med. 24,73–81. Hawley, J., and Burke, L. (1997).
Effect of meal frequency and timing on physical performance. Br. J. Nutr, 77,S91–S103.Hulston, C.
, Venables, M., Mann, C., Martin, C.
, Philp, A., Baar, K., and Jeukendrup, A. (2010).
Training with low muscle glycogen enhances fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(11), 2046-2055 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181dd5070 Lambert, E.
, Speechly, D., Dennis, S., and Noakes, T.
(1994). Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 69,287-293 ?Lima-Silva, A., Pires, F.
, Bertuzzi, R., Silva-Cavalcante, M., Oliveira, R., Kiss, M., and Bishop, D. (2013).
Effects of a low-or a high carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 38, 928–934 DOI: dx.
doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2012-0467 Okano, G.,Sato, Y., Takumi, Y.
, and Sugawara, M. (1996). Effect of 4h pre-exercise high carbohydrate and high fat meal ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism. Int J Sports Med, 17(7), 530-4.Paoli, A., Grimaldi, K., D’Agostino, D., Cenci, L.
, Moro, T., Bianco, A., and Palma, A. (2012). Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(34). DOI: http://www.jissn.com/content/9/1/34Phinney, S., Bistrian, B., Evans, W., Gervino, E., and Blackburn, G.
(1983). The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capacity with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism, 32, 769-776.
Pitsiladis, Y., and Maughan, R. (1999). The effects of exercise and diet manipulation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in the heat and in the cold in trained humans. J.
Physiol. 517:919– 930. Rhyu, H., and Cho, S. (2014). The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation.
10(5), 362-331. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.140160Starling, R., Trappe, T., Parcell, A.
, Kerr, C., Fink, W., and Costill, D.
(1985). Effects of diet on muscle triglyceride and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol, 82(4), 1185-9.Tooze, J.
, Subar, A., Thompson, F., Troiano, R., Schatzkin, A.
, and Kipnis, (2004) V. Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study. Am J Clin Nutr. 79, 795–804.
Volek, J., Noakes, T & Phinney, S. (2014). Rethinking fat as fuel for endurance exercise.
European Journal of Sport Science. 15:1, 13-20, DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2014.
959564 Whitley, H., Humphreys, S., Campbell, I., Keegan, M., Jayanetti, T., Sperry, D., MacLaren, D.
, Reilly, T., and Frayn, K. (1998). Metabolic and performance responses during endurance exercise after high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals. J Appl Physiol, 85(2), 418-24.