CSE103 · They are Platform independent · They

CSE103

SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

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ANIS PATEL

CSE17-046

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART A

THE HISTORY OF PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGES

Introduction

Programming Languages are sets of
rules/instructions that make a computer carry out specific operations. A Programming
Language has symbols, words and syntax (grammatical rules). A programming
language is used to create programs for the computer.

Definition of Keywords

Programming Languages are a
notational system for portraying computation in a human-readable and machine-readable
form.

Notational-System = is a group of
symbols used to portray facts and special things.

Computation = is a mathematical calculation.

Classification of Programming Languages

·        
Low level languages

Ø 
Machine language which is known as binary
language, and the instructions which the computer can understand come in the
form of 1(True) or 0(False), and is tough for humans to understand.

Ø 
Assembly language has the same instructions as
machine language and also uses symbols to define a set of commands (E.g. load,
store, add, etc). An assembler is required to translate assembly language
instructions into machine language for the computer to understand.              

·        
High level languages are closer to human
languages and are understood by humans. Programs written in high level
languages must be translated by compilers/interpreters into machine language
for the computer to understand.

Examples: C, C++,
COBOL, FORTRAN, JAVA, LISP, ADA, BASIC, Prolog, Python etc.

High Level Programming Languages

Key
Features

·        
They are
known as Problem oriented Language

·        
High
level programming languages commands and instructions are much easier to read,
understand, write and modify

·        
They are
Platform independent

·        
They are
Easy to maintain

·        
They
have less errors and better documentation

·        
Program
preparation cost is low

·        
It is less
time consuming to write code for programs than using low level programming g
languages

 

 

Uses

High level Programming languages
are used for:

·        
Programming applications and websites

·        
Creating software

·        
Creating games

Examples
of High level Programming languages

·        
C

·        
C++

·        
JAVA

·        
COBOL

·        
FORTRAN

·        
ADA

·        
LISP

·        
BASIC

·        
Prolog

·        
Python

General Trends of the Programming Languages

Python is the number one most
used programming language used in 2017 because Python is a general purpose
language which allows developers to code fewer lines than C++ or Java. It also
has good Object Oriented Programming support and clear Syntax. Second most used
programming language used is C because it has built in operations and functions
that are used to write any program. Java is the third most used because it easy
to understand and simple to use and also because the code can be re-used.