Cued memory recall refers to the memory retrieved with
assistance from cues, which are often semantic (Moult, 2017).

Cue words are words that relate to the information being remembered and they
differ from free recall words, which aids memory retrieval. For example, to
remember the word laptop, the word technology may be used as cued recall. Non-cued
memory refers to retrieved memory that is not assisted by cue words. Cued
memory is essentially using schemas to fill missing information and therefore,
the Schema theory relates to cued and non cued memory recall. Essentially, cued
categories can stimulate schemas.  

Schemas are cognitive structures that are used to organise
knowledge to guide behaviour, predict things, to make sense of experiences and
assist memory recall (McVee,
Dunsmore & Gavelek, 2017). They are derived from prior experience and knowledge and
they simplify reality by seting up expectations, or categories about particular
aspects of the world relating to social and contextual contexts. Schemas are
generally specific culturally, though there are various schemas within specific
cultures due to factors like class. There are several types of schemas
including, scripts which provide information about the order of events in
particular contexts, self-schemas which is information about ourselves which is
organised and social schemas which refers to information about groups of
people. Schema theory can be referred to as the cognitive theory of organising
information. The theory states that, “as active processors of information,
humans integrate new information with existing, stored information.” Schema
theory relates to cued and non cued memory recall as through cued information,
schemas can be used to fill missing information. Essentially, cued categories
can stimulate schemas.   


Bransford and Johnson, 1972
demonstrates the schema theory. The aim of this investigation was to identify
the processing stage/s where schemas have the most influence. The investigation
involved participants listening to a speech under three different conditions.

These conditions include, the ‘no title’ condition where participants only
heard the paragraph, ‘title before’ condition where the participants heard a
title before the paragraph and ‘title after’ where participants told title
after hearing the paragraph. After hearing the speeches, the participants were
asked to recall as much as they could. The results demonstrated that the ‘no
title’ schema had the lowest memory recall, followed by ‘title after’ schema.

The two schemas demonstrated 2.6-2.8 ideas out of 18. It was found that the
‘before title’ schema recalled the most amount of information. The participants
in this schema demonstrated 5.8 ideas out of 18, therefore, it had the most
information. From the results it can be concluded that, ‘title before’
participants applied schematic knowledge and the ‘title after’ participants
could not apply schematic knowledge as the title came after. Therefore, schemas do influence the
way that information is used and encoded.

 The experiment conducted is a replication
of, “Availability versus Accessibility of Information in Memory for Words” which was conducted by Tulving
and Pearlstone, in 1996. The laboratory was conducted to investigate the
effect of retrieval cues on recall. The investigation had three independent
variables, number of words per category (1,2 or 4), list length (12, 24 or 48)
and the condition of recall, cued (CR) and non-cued (NCR). The investigation involved 948 participants from year 10 to year 12, of
both genders, from two school systems in the Metropolitan Toronto area. The
participants were given a list of categorized words to learn. The categories
included: country in Europe, boy’s name, city in US, name of a river and
statesman of the day and were accompanied by 1, 2 or 4 names depending on the
number of words per category. The participants were split into two groups, cued
recall condition and non-cued recall condition. The results demonstrated that that under the Cued Recall (CR) conditions, list 24-4 had the smallest
difference between CR and non-cued recall. the average no. of words that the
participants recorded in Group 24-4 CR was 17.7, of which 15.1 were correct and
2.6 were categorical illusions. The mean for group 24-4 NCR was 14.6, 13.4 were
correct and 1.2 were illusions. Therefore, by average, Group 24-4 CR had 3.1
more correct responses than NCR. Therefore, it was concluded that cues assist
in gaining higher recall as information is made more accessible by memory.


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