Cued memory recall refers to the memory retrieved withassistance from cues, which are often semantic (Moult, 2017).Cue words are words that relate to the information being remembered and theydiffer from free recall words, which aids memory retrieval. For example, toremember the word laptop, the word technology may be used as cued recall. Non-cuedmemory refers to retrieved memory that is not assisted by cue words.
Cuedmemory is essentially using schemas to fill missing information and therefore,the Schema theory relates to cued and non cued memory recall. Essentially, cuedcategories can stimulate schemas. Schemas are cognitive structures that are used to organiseknowledge to guide behaviour, predict things, to make sense of experiences andassist memory recall (McVee,Dunsmore & Gavelek, 2017). They are derived from prior experience and knowledge andthey simplify reality by seting up expectations, or categories about particularaspects of the world relating to social and contextual contexts. Schemas aregenerally specific culturally, though there are various schemas within specificcultures due to factors like class. There are several types of schemasincluding, scripts which provide information about the order of events inparticular contexts, self-schemas which is information about ourselves which isorganised and social schemas which refers to information about groups ofpeople.
Schema theory can be referred to as the cognitive theory of organisinginformation. The theory states that, “as active processors of information,humans integrate new information with existing, stored information.” Schematheory relates to cued and non cued memory recall as through cued information,schemas can be used to fill missing information. Essentially, cued categoriescan stimulate schemas.
Bransford and Johnson, 1972demonstrates the schema theory. The aim of this investigation was to identifythe processing stage/s where schemas have the most influence. The investigationinvolved participants listening to a speech under three different conditions.These conditions include, the ‘no title’ condition where participants onlyheard the paragraph, ‘title before’ condition where the participants heard atitle before the paragraph and ‘title after’ where participants told titleafter hearing the paragraph. After hearing the speeches, the participants wereasked to recall as much as they could. The results demonstrated that the ‘notitle’ schema had the lowest memory recall, followed by ‘title after’ schema.The two schemas demonstrated 2.
6-2.8 ideas out of 18. It was found that the’before title’ schema recalled the most amount of information.
The participantsin this schema demonstrated 5.8 ideas out of 18, therefore, it had the mostinformation. From the results it can be concluded that, ‘title before’participants applied schematic knowledge and the ‘title after’ participantscould not apply schematic knowledge as the title came after.
Therefore, schemas do influence theway that information is used and encoded. The experiment conducted is a replicationof, “Availability versus Accessibility of Information in Memory for Words” which was conducted by Tulvingand Pearlstone, in 1996. The laboratory was conducted to investigate theeffect of retrieval cues on recall. The investigation had three independentvariables, number of words per category (1,2 or 4), list length (12, 24 or 48)and the condition of recall, cued (CR) and non-cued (NCR). The investigation involved 948 participants from year 10 to year 12, ofboth genders, from two school systems in the Metropolitan Toronto area.
Theparticipants were given a list of categorized words to learn. The categoriesincluded: country in Europe, boy’s name, city in US, name of a river andstatesman of the day and were accompanied by 1, 2 or 4 names depending on thenumber of words per category. The participants were split into two groups, cuedrecall condition and non-cued recall condition. The results demonstrated that that under the Cued Recall (CR) conditions, list 24-4 had the smallestdifference between CR and non-cued recall.
the average no. of words that theparticipants recorded in Group 24-4 CR was 17.7, of which 15.1 were correct and2.6 were categorical illusions. The mean for group 24-4 NCR was 14.6, 13.4 werecorrect and 1.
2 were illusions. Therefore, by average, Group 24-4 CR had 3.1more correct responses than NCR. Therefore, it was concluded that cues assistin gaining higher recall as information is made more accessible by memory.