Describe the Greek and Roman imagination- The Greek and Roman imaginations was a way the human race thought and felt ages ago and how their perception was of life. Imagination was vividly alive and not checked by reason during this time What is the importance of the Iliad?- It is the first written record of GreeceWhat is “the Greek miracle?”- the new birth of the world with the awakening of Greece, where “old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.” The universe becoming rationalHow do the Greeks compare to the Egyptians?- The Greeks made their gods in their own image. Far from displeasing the Greeks, laughter in the presence of an Egyptian sphinx was in- conceivable. What is “the terrifying irrational?”-Things that did not make sense or unknown to the ancient GreeksHow did Zeus change over time?- The portrayal of Zeus changed over the years because the authors of the stories changed. They became more conscious of the demands of life.* “The Gods” Chapter 1: for each, you should be able to match the Greek name to the Roman name and define along with any symbols (for example, Aphrodite aka Venus: goddess of love, symbol dove). Greek NameRoman NameArea of PowerCronusSaturnRuler of the TitansZeusJupiterSky, weather, chief godHeraJunoQueen of gods, protector of women and marriageAresMarsWarPoseidonNeptuneSea, horsesApolloApolloSun, youth, music, healing, prophecyArtemisDianaMoon, hunting, childbirthHadesOrcus/Dis PaterunderworldErosCupidloveAphroditeVenusLove, beauty, pleasureHephaestusVulcanFire, craftsman of godsHermesMercuryMessenger of the gods, god of secrets, tricks and thievesAthenaMinervaWisdom, war, craftsDemeterCeresCorn and agriculture, an earth goddessDionysusBacchus/LiberWine, fertility, music Make a brief outline for each of the following stories:* Chapter 2: the story of the seasons, and Persephone (Proserpine).Demeter has a daughter Persephone. Hades kidnaps her and brings her down to be his wife in the underworld. Demeter is sad and comes down to humans in an elderly form. Demeter makes the earth turn cold while waiting for Persephone to return and Zeus tells Hermes to bring Persephone back. Hades gives Persephone a pomegranate seed knowing that if she eats this she will have to return to him. This is the four months of winter. * Chapter 3: the creation, Zeus, Titans, Giants, plus Pandora’s Box.The earth starts with chaos and Night and Erebus are born. Love is born after, creating daylight. The earth creates heaven, Mother Earth and father heaven being created. They create greek monsters. Father Heaven decides the monsters are too destructive so he locks them in the earth. Earth is unpleased with this stabbed the heavens. Cronus eats his children to protect himself, his wife Rhea hiding one of the children. The child grows up to become the god Zeus. All the siblings want to be released. Zeus imprisoned the Titans under the earth, the earth creating Typhoon and a rebellion from the giants, Zeus winning. The second story says the gods made humans out of gold, silver, bronze, and iron. Gold being the best, silver being the least bright, bronze loving war but kills itself, and iron being the most horrible. There are many different versions, but Zeus created Pandora, the first female, the gods giving her a box containing all evil. Her childish ways got the best of her and she opened the box, giving evil to the earth, but also hope. This is how evil was first introduced to the world.* Chapters 3 & 4: Prometheus, Narcissus, Echo, Hyacinth, and AdonisThe first story of creation of man says Prometheus made humans and steals fire from the sun, while Epimetheus made animals, giving them the best gifts. In the first story of Narcissus, Zeus creates it for Hade’s plan on kidnapping Persephone. The other version of the story is about the man Narcissus who was constantly playing and hurting those who loved his beauty. He hurt the nymph Echo, making Nemesis angry. In this situation, Apollo accidentally kills Hyacinth and creates the hyacinth for his friend. Adonis is killed and his lovers Persephone and Aphrodite are heartbroken. Redness blooms from this, which results in flowers.* Chapter 5: Pygmalion & GalateaPygmalion vowed to never marry after thinking women weren’t worthy. He was determined to create a statue of a woman so beautiful that it would show all men that they were foolish. After forming the statue, he fell deeply in love with it. Hopeless and head over heals, he asked Venus to find him a woman as beautiful as his creation. Venus granted his wishes and after married them. Pygmalion named his wife Galatea They had a son named Paphos.* Chapter 8: Daedalus & IcarusDaedalus invented a bird that would chirp at sunrise, and the King was so impressed that he asked Daedalus to create another thing. There was a plan to imprison Minotaur. The King moved Daedalus and his son to an isolated cave by the sea and he continued to invent. Daedalus asked the king to let his son go. The king didn’t want to lose his talent so he said no. The father and son built two giant sets of wings, flying over the ocean to freedom. Icarus flew too close to the sun and melted the wax of the wings, disobeying his father’s wishes. He died when he fell from the sky and hit the ground. Daedalus named the island Icaria out of grief for his son.* Chapter 9: PerseusThere is a prophecy that acrisius will never have a son and that the son of his daughter will kill him. Ti prevent this prophecy he must kill his own daughter and instead he imprisons Danae. Zeus got her pregnant and Perseus, Danae, and the baby are set in a box out into the ocean. A fisherman named Dictys takes them in to his island but King Polydectes falls in love with Danae. Polydectes convinces Perseus to kill the Medusa. Hermes gives Perseus a sword and must ask the Gray Women where the location is, he holds the eyeball in exchange for information. He kills Medusa and meets a beautiful goddess Andromeda on the way home. Using the head of Medusa, Perseus finds his mother, makes Dictys king, and marries Andromeda. They return to find King Acrisius but he fled. Perseus competes in a disc-throwing contest and it hit his father in the crowd. This fulfilled the prophecy. * Chapter 10: TheseusTheseus travels to the city ro meet his father. He arrives in Athens and Aegeus declares Theseus heir to the throne and sends him on a journey. When women arrive in Crete, Mino’s daughter Ariadne falls in love with Theseus. He promises to marry her if he escapes from the labyrinth and kills it. O the way back, Ariadne dies and Theseus rules Athens and marries Ariadne’s sister Phaedra. He already had a child Hippolytus and Phaedra falls in love with him and then kill herself. Artemis tries to tell Theseus the truth but he was killed at sea. * Chapter 11: HerculesHe was incredibly strong and is half god son of Zeus. After he married Princess Megara, and Hera sends Hercules into insanity, causing him to murder his three sons. To get rid of his imurity he visits the Oracle at Delphi and sends him on twelve challenges, which he completes. He has to bring back objects including the three-headed dog (Cerberus) up from Hades.* Chapters 13 & 14: The Trojan War, The Fall of TroyGoddesses argue over who should get the apple and they try to bribe Paris. In the end, Paris chooses Aphrodite. Paris kidnaps Helen of Troy and to appease Artemis, Iphigenia is sacrificed. The battle for Helen goes back and forth for nine years and Aphrodite saves Paris’ life for the armies to agree on a truce. Hera seduces Zeus to give the Greeks an advantage. In the end, Hector dies and has a funeral. The war continues and PAris shoots an arrow into Achilles heel killing him. The Greeks learn that the Trojans have a secret image that protects them. The Trojans triumphantly bring a horse into the city and hollowed inside is the Greek army. At night, they massacred the Trojans and finished Troy off.* Chapter 18: Oedipus, AntigoneOedipus had been running away from home and answered a riddle right so the Sphinx killed itself. He becomes a famous liberator and marries Jocasta. PLague hits the land and Jocasta kills herself, while Oedipus poked his eyes out. He killed his father and married his mother so he went to an island where his daughter Antigone took care of him. Polyneices and Eteocles kill each other. Antigone buries her brother so Creon kills her for her crime. * Chapter 20: MidasMidas is a king in Phrygia and wishes for the power to run everything he touched into gold. This hinders hi from eating and he has to wash himself in the river Pactolus to remove the spell. Midas calls Pana better musician and Apollo changes his ears to a donkey’s.* Chapter 21: Amazons, Arachne, Hero & Leander, Orion, SisyphusThe Amazons are a nation of women warriors who live near the Caucasus Mountains. And appear in the myth of Bellerophon and Theseus. Arachne says that her weaving skills are better than Minerva’s so they challenge each other in a contest. They tie and Minerva destroys Arachne’s weaving. Arachne hangs herself and Minerva takes pity on Arachne and changes her into a spider. Hero is a priestess of Aphrodite in Sestus. Each night, he swims across the strait to Hero. He drowns when he tries to swim across in a storm and Hero kills herself when she finds his body. Orion is a hunter who loves the daughter of Oenopion, king of Chios. Oenopion blinds Orion while he sleeps. Orion regains his sight and goes to serve Artemis on Crete, but she eventually kills him. He’s placed in the stars after death. Sisyphus is a king of Corinth who sees an eagle carrying a woman to an island. Asopus rightly suspects Zeus has his daughter, and Zeus punishes Sisyphus by punishing him to forever roll a boulder uphill as it rolls back toward him.