Diabetes is achronic and sometimes fatal disease, in which the body either cannot produceinsulin or cannot properly use the insulin it produces.
Insulin is a hormonethat controls the amount of blood glucose. Diabetes leads to high blood sugarlevels, which can damage organs, blood vessels and nerves. The body needsinsulin to use sugar as an energy source. There are three main types ofdiabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas’s failure toproduce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependentdiabetes mellitus”.
The cause is unknown yet. Type 2 diabetes begins withinsulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond properly to insulin.This form was previously referred to as “non-insulin-dependent diabetesmellitus”. Excessive body weight and insufficient exercise is the most commoncause. Gestational diabetes is the third main form, which occurs when pregnantwomen without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.Background and History of DiabetesDiabetes mellitus occursthroughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developedcountries. However, the greatest increase in rates has been seen inlow-and-middle income countries, where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur.
The fastest wide spreading is expected to occur in Africa and Asia. Theincrease rates in developing countries follows the trend of the societiesbecome more unban and changes of lifestyle, including increasingly sedentarylifestyles, less physically demanding work and the worldwide nutrition changing,that marks by increased intake of foods that are high energy but poor nutrient,often high in sugar and saturated fats. In 400–500 CE, type 1 and type 2diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indianphysicians. Effective treatment was not developed until Canadians FrederickBanting and Charles Herbert best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and1922.
This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH inthe 1940s.Symptoms of Diabetes The signs and symptoms of diabetescan include the following: unusual thirst; frequent urination; weight change(gain or loss); extreme fatigue or lack of energy; blurred vision; frequent orrecurring infections; cuts and bruises that are slow to heal; tingling ornumbness in the hands or feet; trouble getting or maintaining an erection formales. If someone has any of these symptoms,it is important to contact health-care provider right away. Even if you don’thave symptoms, if you are 40 or older, you should still get checked. It isimportant to recognize, however, that many people who have type 2 diabetes maydisplay no symptoms.
Tests to Diagnose the DiabetesFirst one isFasting blood glucose test. You must not eat or drink anything except water forat least eight hours before this test. A test result of 7.0 mmol/L or greaterindicates diabetes. Random blood glucose test, this test may be done at anytime, regardless of when you last ate. A test result of 11.0 mmol/L or greater,additional symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes.
Another one is oralglucose tolerance test. You will be given a special sweetened drink prior to thisblood test. A test result of 11.
1 mmol/L or greater taken two hours afterhaving the sweet drink indicates diabetes.A second test must be done in all cases (except if you have acute signs andsymptoms). Once diabetes has been diagnosed, ask your doctor to refer you fordiabetes education and treatmentsright away. Complications of Diabetes All forms ofdiabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically developafter 10-20 years but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise notreceived a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relateto damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular diseaseand about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. Theprimary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels includedamage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Damage to the eyes is caused by damageto the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual visionloss and blindness. Damage to thekidneys can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronickidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Damageto the nerves of the body is the most common complication of diabetes.Key elements in diabetes managementDiabeteseducation is an important first step. All people with diabetes need to beinformed about their condition. Regular physical activity helps your body lowerblood glucose levels, promotes weight loss, reduces stress and enhances overallfitness. Maintaining a healthy weight is especially important in the managementof type 2 diabetes.
What, when and how much you eat all play an important rolein regulating blood sugar levels. Learning to reduce stress levels inday-to-day life can help people with diabetes better manage their disease. Highblood pressure can lead to eye disease, heart disease, stroke and kidneydisease, thus people with diabetes should try to maintain a blood pressure levelbetter below 130/80. You may need to change your eating and physical activityhabits or take medication if necessary.
Treatments for Diabetes Type 1diabetes is always treated with insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed through mealplanning and physical activity. It may require medications or insulin to assistyour body in controlling blood glucose more effectively. Medications used totreat diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. There are a number of differentclassifications of anti-diabetic medications. Some are available by mouth, suchas metformin,while others are only available by injection.
Metformin isgenerally recommended as a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, asthere is good evidence that it decreases mortality. It works by decreasingthe liver’s production of glucose. Several other groups of drugs, mostlygiven by mouth, may also decrease blood sugar in type II diabetes. Theseinclude agents that increase insulin release, agents that decrease absorptionof sugar from the intestines, and agents that make the body more sensitive toinsulin.
When insulin is used in type 2 diabetes, doses ofinsulin may be increased to effect. The cost of the oral antidiabetic agent(for example, metformin 2 tablets twice a day) is around $27 for three months’supply. Diabetic insulin is relatively expensive than oral agents, for example,Novorapid costs $5 for 100unit/ml, and insulin glargine is around $7 for 100units/ml.
These two insulin are often required combined use, for example,insert Novorapid 6 units three times a day and insulin glargine 14 units onetime a day at bedtime. The cost of three months of insulin use would be around$170. How Diabetes affects aperson’s daily lifeDiabetes isa demanding disease, so it can affect a person’s life in many ways. Managingdiabetes can be stressful. People who has diabetes must monitor blood glucoseregularly, eat carefully and do exercise frequently. Also they need to avoidsugar that means they have to give up cakes, chocolates, ice cream, and sugarin tea and coffee. When blood sugar levels get too high, they feel tired andcan’t deal with problems so well. When they’ve injected their insulin, theyneed to eat right away.
Otherwise their blood sugar levels become dangerouslylow, they could have a hypoglycemic attack and there’s a risk that they mayfall into a coma. They also need regular visits to their physicians. ConclusionDiabetes isa very common chronic disease in the world; over 2.7 million Canadians areliving with diabetes, joining over 285 million people worldwide who share thisburden.
I also have several friends and family members who are suffering indiabetes, that’s why I choose to talk about diabetes. Diabetes needs long-termongoing treatment, and under proper treatment there’s always no significantsymptoms. Thus some people don’t treat themselves as patients, and they don’tlike other people treat them as patients either. This is what I found whentalking to some people who with diabetes.
That’s also how I perceived diabetesbefore, but I’ve learned the severe complications of diabetes through theresearch of this project. I realize how important it is to prevent diabetes byeating healthy food, getting more physical activity, maintaining proper weightand how important for those who have diabetes to control the blood glucose.Internet is the most important source of information that I used to write myreport; I have learned lots of information about diabetes, which is really helpfulto me and my friends and family members who have diabetes.