Diabetes or sometimes people call “a touch of sugar” occurs when a person’s blood glucose or blood sugar, which is human’s main source of energy that comes from the eaten food, becomes too high. There are two hormones, made by the pancreas, that plays essential roles to keep blood glucose balanced. These are the insulin and glucagon.
Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of pancreatic islets, region in the pancreas where endocrine cells is found, is called insulin. While glucagon is another hormone that is produced by alpha cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin allows the body to use the sugar or glucose from carbohydrates which is used as energy and the glucagon regulates the utilization of glucose. Sometimes, the body does not make enough insulin which makes the glucose stay in the blood and not reach the body’s cells. Diabetes can lead to infections, blindness, kidney failure, leg amputation, heart attacks and strokes.
According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report, 30.3 million people around the world have diabetes. There are 23.1 million diagnosed of diabetes while 7.2 million (23.8%) of people who have diabetes are undiagnosed. In the Philippines, it was reported that in the year 2016, at least six million Filipinos across the country have been diagnosed to diabetes which is an alarming rate of one person dying because of diabetes complications every six seconds.
As reported by the Philippine Center for Diabetes Education Foundation there is a big possibility that this figure could double to 12 million or more by 2040. The most common causes of diabetes among Filipinos are stress and the fast-food culture and commonly appears in 50 to 69 years of age who live in urban areas.Diabetes is categorized into three types which are diabetes type 1, diabetes 2, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes type 1 appears in any age mostly in children and young adults.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system destroys the cells in pancreas thus making the pancreas stop the production of insulin. On the other hand, diabetes type 2, the most common type of diabetes, occurs when the body does not make enough insulin. This type of diabetes can appear in any age, however, it commonly appears in middle-aged and older people. Gestational diabetes develops in some pregnant women. Most of the time, this type of diabetes disappears after the baby is born, however, there is a great chance that women who are diagnosed of gestational diabetes would develop type 2 diabetes later in their lives.Presumed to be originated in the western domain of our world, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), or commonly known as type II Diabetes has been a huge pathogen onto our society’s well-being. Designated with several causes, taken part by genetics and lifestyle, Diabetes has proved itself to be one of the world’s most unsolved puzzles that the people has yet to decipher.
Despite its lack of contagiousness, its behaviour as a disease acts otherwise as it continuously and rapidly spreads around the world, infecting almost 25.8 million people in the United States or 8.3 percent of America’s entire population.
In 2011, a study has suggested that around 366 million people around the world has showed signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus, and by 2030 it is believed that it will inflate up to 522 million due to its hereditary characteristic. Statistics also shows that people with Type 2 DM are increasing, especially to those countries which are categorized as low to middle class countries. Filipinos are more prone to T2DM compared to other races. In studies conducted in North America, it was reported that Filipino migrants have higher rates of T2DM than other Asians such as Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese. Since the era of the Egyptians around 3000 years ago, Diabetes has shown its prevalence through the manuscripts that has been reported and written by man.