Discrimination can be defined as an of act unfair treatment towards a group of individuals who believe they have more power than others. Individuals are often discriminated based on their gender, religion, race, age and disability. There are nine characteristics of equality and diversity which have been defined by the Equality act 2010, these include age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage or civil partnership (in employment only), pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.
Discrimination continues to exist in modern society, hence why it has been raised as a social problem. EU citizens in the UK that are currently living and working are facing many issues against discrimination when they are applying for employment and housing (Unison National, 2017). Therefore, this shows that discrimination is one of the biggest challenges in the advanced world.
This assignment will focus on disability discrimination within businesses. According to Doyle (2000) Disability Discrimination Act 1995, “to make it lawful to discriminate disabled persons in connection with employment, the provision of goods, facilities and services or the disposal or management of premises: to make provision about the employment of disabled persons; and to build up a National Disability Council”. However, the Equality Act 2010 replaced the 1995 Act and suggested that if you’re disabled under the Equality Act 2010 you have a physical or mental impairment that has a ‘substantial’ and ‘long haul’ negative impact to be capable to do ordinary everyday exercises (Gov.uk, 2017). Doyle (2000) has defined substantial as when an individual has minor vision impairment, for example when they have 20/40 vision may think that It’s hard to demonstrate; vision might find it difficult to show that their impairment has a substantial adverse effect of the kind required by the statute.
It is estimated that in the UK there are around 11.9 million disabled people (Peacock, 2017). Recent research shows that in January 2016, the UK employment rate for disabled individuals was 46.5% which is 4.1 million compared to 84% of non-disable individuals (Peacock, 2017). Most organisations in the UK should avoid discriminating against disabled individuals by ensuring they follow Disability Discrimination Act 2010, it is against the law to treat disabled individuals unfairly. Whereas, if some organisations continue to do so then this will affect the business in the long term as they will have a bad reputation in the community.
In the UK, as indicated by the Labour Force Survey; employment has increased for disabled people from 2002. Furthermore, individuals who are disabled remain fundamentally more averse to be at work than non-disable people. In 2012, it is estimated that 46.3% of disable individuals were working in comparison to 76.4% of non-disabled people who were unemployed (Gov.uk, 2017). This evidence proves that disabled people in the UK are motivated to work regardless of being disabled, being disabled does not affect them from being employed and working for organisations. Due to the economic climate, the most recent two years has remained stable. However, Torrington Hall and Taylor (2008) suggested in spring 2005; 50% of disabled individuals are employed in comparison to 80% of non-disable individuals who are unemployed. Overall, this demonstrates that in the UK, disabled individuals employment is expanding, therefore, discrimination towards disabled individuals does not occur constantly. Most organisations are planning to find new ways to improve and provide help to those disable individuals in order for them to be able to work as normal people; “but more needs to be done, which is why we’re consulting on a range of ways to improve opportunities for disabled people” (BBC News, 2017).
Disability discrimination may occur in various aspects. It can be immediate, and self-evident, circuitous, and not all that self-evident (Werner, 2015). The following are cases of both immediate and indirect disability discrimination.
Direct discrimination is fairly straightforward in almost every case. This may occur in some workplaces where an individual is treated unfairly directly due to their disability, for example refusing not to train new applicants, declining individuals with better experience or denying them a promotion. For instance, a female competitor who is disabled with the best capabilities and experience does not get an interview, but rather a male applicant who isn’t disabled with less capability does. Discrimination by association is when an individual has a relationship with a disabled individual regardless of being disabled themselves. For example, a discrimination by association could be when an individual is not offered a job, after telling the training organiser she has other responsibilities of looking after a carer who has mental illness. However, discrimination by perception is when an organisation considers an applicant to have disability when in actual fact the applicant does not. An example of this could be when an individual has applied for a job who isn’t disabled and is rejected the job because the organisation assumed that they were disabled.
Indirect discrimination can occur easily unintentionally; Torrington et al. (2014) suggested that a ‘provision, criterion or practise’ is set or operated which has the effect, in practices, of disadvantaging a significantly bigger proportion of sex than the other’. An example could be when a business just offers promotion to individuals who have a driving permit and are capable to drive despite the fact that this isn’t a key prerequisite for the occupation. This will segregate individuals with psychological wellness issues that keep them from holding a driving permit. For some organisations, indirect discrimination does not make a difference whether they know if you are disabled or not. This indicates that most organisations will need to plan ahead of time and consider how their arrangements and practices may influence individuals with psychological well-being issues. This will help the organisation to avoid indirect discrimination in their workplace.
Harassment is defined as unwanted conduct that can affect men and women in the workplace (Torrington et al., 2014), it can also have the same meaning as bullying; it has been identified as an applicable secured trademark for disability. It is regularly identified as a conduct proposed to irritate or disturb, where the behaviour of the individual is found threatening and disturbing. This can incorporate bullying, nicknames, threats, inappropriate questions, ignoring, excluding someone (not welcoming somebody to gatherings) or insults. It can be verbal, written or physical. When the individual is being harassed there is a purpose and an effect. For instance, the individual is humiliating, degrading and violating the disabled individual’s dignity or creating an intimating. This will cause issues such as depression for the individual (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2013). Moreover, undesirable jokes and gossip can be the cause of harassment, even though some individuals will cast jokes as banter there is no justification. In order to avoid bullying and harassment at work, it is extremely important for businesses/workplaces to provide policies procedures and guarantee that they are authorized.
Some of the key viewpoints of dealing with bullying and harassment could be to address the issue as soon as possible. It is regularly exhorted that grievances are best settled casually, however this may not be suitable for charges of bullying and harassment. Where the affirmations are of a genuine of touchy nature, the formal strategy ought to be prompted immediately. Also, to give a secret and strong condition for both the individual who feels harassed and the individual blamed for tormenting. The assertions could conceivably be substantiated and both should be managed decently over the span of the examinations.
Michael Oliver (1983) introduced the individual model as a state of differentiation for his social model. Oliver’s particular model systems incapacity from a just physiological perspective; the implications of this is a disabled people handicap alone keeps them from full social help. Oliver (1983) suggested his adaptation of the social model in light of the accepted ways of thinking that disability was situated inside the body, that on getting to be debilitated, incapacitated people persevered through a procedure tantamount to pain (lamenting for the lost substantial capacity) and that it was the duty of the individual debilitated individual to wind up restored and adjust to society. Oliver named this approach the singular model of disability. He guaranteed incapacity was situated inside society (p. 27), each impaired individual reacts to any loss of substantial capacity in an unexpected way (p. 21) and it is the obligation of society to adjust to these incapacitated people (p. 23) and in this manner, limit the degree to which weakness is an inconvenience.
From an individual model point of view, rehabilitative measures ought to be taken to consolidate impaired people into society. Oliver (1996) himself did not grasp this term, asserting “there is no such thing as the medical model of disability. There is rather, an individual model of disability of which medicalisation is one noteworthy segment”. The social model, by differentiating, which Oliver considers to be desirable over the individual model, finds inability inside society; utilizing this option approach, society is considered in charge of debilitated people’s social prohibition. In testing biased dispositions towards impaired people, Oliver felt, crippled people’s social incorporation could be encouraged.
However, Jenny Morris (1991) stated that while ecological boundaries and social states of mind are a pivotal piece of our encounters of handicap; and do to be sure impair us to recommend it’s as simple as that to prevent the individual experience from claiming physical or scholarly limitations, of ailment, of the dread of passing on. As a result, as Morris would see it, paying little mind to the lodging society may make for disabled people and regardless of the states of mind non-incapacitated people have towards disabled people, disabilities can abbreviate an individual’s life expectancy, cause tension and additionally abandon them in torment, regardless of whether that agony is physical, enthusiastic or both.
The bio-psycho-social model of disability, as its title proposes, outlines incapacity as a physiological, mental and social wonder. Just by tending to every part of disability can a disabled individual be completely incorporated into society. The Back-Up Trust (2012), a UK-based association for people with spinal string damage, compress the bio-psycho-social model in the accompanying quote. The model was introduced by Roy Grinker in 1964.
The model bio-psycho-social model of disability considers the inability to be a connection between an individual’s wellbeing condition and nature they live in. This model shows that both the medical and social models are fitting, yet nor is adequate all alone to clarify the mind-boggling nature of one’s wellbeing. This biopsychosocial display demonstrates the intricate and dynamic connection between various bury related components. In this model, an individual’s capacity to work is seen as the result of the associations between the medical factor and relevant components. The relevant elements incorporate outside natural factors, for example, social mentality and structures, and inside individual variables, which incorporate adapting styles, social foundation, training and different elements that impact how disability is experienced by the person (Back-Up Trust, 2012).
Physical disabilities indicate different disorders affecting people’s lives for instance individuals that have trouble with hearing, vision, expertise, and portability and may prompt useful constraints in day to day exercises. For example, individuals may struggle with driving, performing family unit errands or finishing word related assignments.
A review by Thompson et al. (2012) individuals who have utilitarian impediments, which may originate from a physical disability, are more averse to take part in comfortable physical action or devour dinners containing healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables and will probably have a lower household wage and have more physically unfortunate days than those without practical limitations. Different concerning results identified with physical disabilities have been viewed. On the other hand, as for mental health issues; individuals may result in suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. Regarding particular disabilities that have been inquired about, much writing concerning relationship between physical disability and suicide concentrates on people with incessant torment or features the part of torment in the relationship amongst disability and suicide.
Stigma was initially received by the Ancient Greeks who utilized it to speak to the imprints that were pricked onto slaves to show possession and to mirror their sub-par societal position. The antiquated Greek term for prick was ‘stig’ and the coming about stamp, a ‘stigma’ (Goldstein, 2002). It was in this manner used to imply any real sign that demonstrated something terrible about the ethical character of a specific individual. DeFleur and Goffman (1964) acknowledged three categories of stigma number one is detestations of the body which is referred to physical disfigurements. Second is imperfections of individual character which is stated as emotional well-being issues, joblessness, misconduct and the final one is tribal stigma, for example, race, belief, ethnicity, etc.
Disability associated to stigma has been characterized as the shame identified with “saw negative characteristics or results of the disability (e.g., regarding appearance, well-being, or abilities), (McLaughlin, Bell, and Stringer, 2004) and has been related with different concerning results. In particular, this model of disability concentrates on disability as an impairment because of natural procedures or breaking down. As a result, society sees complications looked by people with physical disabilities as originating from their disabilities or the people themselves and away from societal structures; medical experts give the definitions and answers for these impairments, conceivably giving more accentuation on the disability as the wellspring of the people’s challenges (Beaudry, 2016).
The stigma within the working environment may along these lines affect work environment connections and prompt contrary relational results. Poor emotional well-being results have been ascribed to stigma, as it is connected with an expansion in mental anxiety (Van Brakel, 2006), bring down confidence, dominance, and confinement (Jacoby, 1994). A review by Green et al., (2005) examined that abuse of those with physical disabilities was prescient of sadness and considerations of suicide. Besides, according to Lund et al., (2016) recognised that people’s antagonistic demeanours towards disability were related with more prominent worthiness of suicide as a possibility for people with physical incapacities. In this manner, there means that the connection between inability status and suicide hazard might be incompletely clarified by people with disabilities’ encounters with stigma. Individuals that have physical disabilities and experience stigma may choose not to communicate with other as they find it difficult or feel embarrassed.
Stigma against individuals with emotional well-being issues occurs is a result of the related generalization of potential brutality and unconventionality. In stigmas different conceptualisations, it shows little uncertainty that stigma appended to psychological behaviour conveys with it noteworthy consequences and different hurtful impacts, on the person and the individuals loved ones. It shows that this can cause disgrace and humiliation and burden their close family individuals. According to Lefley (1887) additionally exhibits stigma’s effect on the person’s family. They analysed the problem and adapting techniques of 84 experienced mental wellbeing experts who have relatives experiencing ceaseless psychological well-being issues. The investigation uncovered that the defendants’ close to home responses included both 16 subjective and attitude changes in their originations of mental issues. Additionally, he demonstrated relationships with their work associates by constraining self-revelation as well as, case association, and portrayed different considerable money related and sentimental pressure. However, Hatzenbuehler, Phelan and Link (2013) suggested that Stigmatization is a social build that in a general sense causes wellbeing inconsistencies.
To draw together just a few key points of disabilities and despite the legislation, it still happens for a variety of reasons. Therefore, managers need to defend against disability discrimination and provide strategies organisations can adopt, for instance, the disability management methodology ought to be figured as per national regulation, policy and training (Vasconcelos, 2017). All organisations need to address these things and set up every one of these methodologies together, keeping in mind the end goal to improve things for individuals with disabilities in the working environment and open the way to more individuals. Also, all organisations should give opportunities to people that have a disability and not treat them any different (Pixley, 2015). Overall, in order to make sure discrimination does not occur in workplaces, managers have to make sure everyone in the workplace treats every individual equally. This is the most straightforward approach to eliminate discrimination and stereotype in the work environment.