Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Discussion Questions for Week 13 Part 4 What is the norm of reciprocity? The norm of reciprocity is an expectation held that people respond to each other with indifference and benefits for benefits.Can you think of any instances in your previous experience when you violated this norm? What happened? I violated this norm in one of my relationships in that I did not give back emotionally as expected by my partner. I have also violated this norm in one of my business interactions in that I was unable to provide my part of the contract, resulting in the other party withdrawing from the contract and seeking for damages.According to the Ropes text, what are the most important types of relationships in organizations? Does Fred Goldner’s research back up the text argument? Fred H. Goldner provides that his role as a research sociologist in a large corporation was evidence of role emergence in organizations.How much power do the following individuals have in organizations?Upward moving individuals such as Ted Shelby Ted Shelby has a lot of power given that his growth in the organization is an illustration of the informal power that he holds due to his skills and knowledge.

In addition, the positions that he assumes also determine the level of power that he holds.Individuals who are not mobile or do not desire to move up These kinds of individuals have minimal power, as they are comfortable. (Robbins & Judge 244).Young superstars These individuals exercise a relatively significant level of power as their skills and knowledge in a changing society provides them with an advantage over older individuals in the organization. Their power is by their knowledge and skills. In addition, their power increases as they grow in the organization assuming hierarchies of power in the organization.Lower level organizational members such as secretaries Lower level members in an organization have low power due to their formal positions as well as their level of knowledge and skills.What is the difference between formal and informal power? Formal power is based on the position held by an employee or the title held in an organization.

The power is provided by the position in the organization. On the other hand, informal power is determined by individual ability to use skills and knowledge to provide the direction on issues in the organization.What is the difference between legitimate and illegitimate power? Legitimate power in the organization is provided by the position one holds. It is also termed as authority provided by a position held. Illegitimate power is provided by skills, knowledge and power in the numbers of people.From your previous experience, can you identify some instances of illegitimate power? How did this power influence your work behavior? Skills and knowledge provided me with an opportunity to engage with higher caliber individuals. In addition, this provided me with an opportunity to be part of individuals solicited for making decisions in the organization.

This was due to my level of knowledge in the organization.Section 7Is there a class system in organizations? Is this class system becoming more or less rigid over time? Class systems are evident in an organization. Employees in an organization are systems. The entity has other systems, which might be provided by the hierarchy, and departments, its processes and groups are classifiable as systems. Some systems are rigid given that they denote authority in the organization whereas others is becoming obsolete due changes in the organization and leaderships and management styles.What is the corporate price for downsizing? The effects on the corporate in the organization include the change in the view of the employer as a good employer in the market. Others include in increase in profitability because of reduced costs all of which is credited to the corporate.Why is moving up through the ranks of an organization more like a tennis tournament than a marathon? Individual ability to fight in terms of determination, skills and knowledge provides an individual with the ability to move through the hierarchy of an organization.

Why are managers who have reached a plateau and managers who drop out of the mobility tournament a thorn in the side of managers trying to move up? They are usually threatened by the efforts of new managers to move up the organizational hierarchy. In addition, the reaction of such managers is a reflex in guarding their roles and positions in the organization that have been threatened by the new managers moving up.Why do lower level participants (such as secretaries) typically have access to a great deal of information that is not available to middle level managers? Lower level participants are usually closer to the revenue generating activities. In addition, they are part of the important organizational processes that provide revenues to the organization in comparison to managers who are only provided with sifted information by supervisors and their subordinates.Chapter 47Who is being more egotistical here, Faust or Stanley? Stanley is egotistical in that he thinks of his primary gains rather than the wellbeing of other such as Faust.

He is considered with his needs.Is Faust correct in his assertion that “It may be your job, but it’s my reputation?” Faust is correct in that the reputation is an important aspect as it illustrates individual integrity rather than a position of employment. A reputation in a position illustrates individual ability to execute tasks with utmost integrity.Is there something that Stanley is failing to see when he says that the New York folks already agreed to this and they cannot change their mind now? Stanley due to his egotistical nature is blinded by the future benefits of his actions rather than an adequate evaluation of the repercussions of the undertaking and decision that has been disputed.

In your experience, have you ever seen examples of behavior similar to Stan’s by a young organizational employee? His skills, knowledge and rapid rise to higher organizational levels seem to blind his decision making ability. This is among the primary issues that affect his individual ability to make sound decisions and respect the opinions of others in the organization. His character is similar to majority of young men who rise rapidly in hierarchy chains on organizations.Why do you think management changed its mind and is now asking for results instead of sticking with the original plan? This was driven by the need to avert risks associated with its initial plan hence the abrupt change in its plans. In addition, the alternative was informed by the need to avert problems in the organization.Chapter 48What are your options if someone like Ted, with the “right parents,” is ahead of you on the hierarchy? Some of the options include enhancing my skills and knowledge to rise above the organizational hierarchy. This is better in that it provides me with an edge to compete in the organization.

Could it actually be advantageous to have a Ted Shelby ahead of you even though he is not all that talented? The advantage of having Ted would be to illustrate my superiority in terms of skills and knowledge that would suit the organization towards the achievement of the set out goals and objectives.What are your career goals and how do you plan to achieve them? My career goals and objectives primarily include growth in my skills and knowledge, which would provide me with a competitive edge in the market.After graduating from college, is it a wise move to try to stay with one company for many years? Why or why not? Staying with a single company should vary in terms of years. This is because a single company may provide an individual with the ability to grow in hierarchy provided an individual grows in terms of skills and knowledge.

In addition, chaining employers also provides an individual with an opportunity for exposure and challenges to the organizational world thus increasing individual ability to work under different conditions.Chapter 49What is the nature of the traditional implicit bargain between management and labor (mostly white-collar, in this context)? The bargain existent between management and labor is primarily based on competition between the two within the hierarchal chain of power in an organization. White-collar labor is viewed as a threat yet as an asset to the organization of the level of professionalism and skills held by this class of employees in an organization. They may co-exist with each other based on mutual understanding as a result of the need to achieve the set out goals and objectives, but still harbor intent to grow within the hierarchy in the organization.

What alternatives to downsizing are potentially available? Long term staffing alternatives could be used instead of downsizing. This includes the use of cross training to provide employees with varied skills and knowledge to handle positions that require multitasking as a means of reducing labor-associated costs (Ritti, & Levy 233).There have always been periods of economic expansion and contraction. Why then has downsizing become so popular with corporations in the past 15 to 20 years? This has been associated with organizational need to ensure reduced costs of labor and associated benefits to employees.Does downsizing typically work as a long-term strategy? Downsizing is a short-term strategy and other strategies such as re-deployment and cross training of employees as long terms strategies. Downsizing provides immediate solutions to costs of labor rather without anticipation to resumption of market conditions necessitating the need for additional labor.How is downsizing similar to firing coaches in college athletics today? Downsizing results in release of important and talented workforce, which should be replaced with redistribution of the workforce within the organization.Chapter 50What is Ben’s relationship to the mobility tournament? Ben’s relationship with the mobility tournament is marked by a high level of dedication to his role and duties in the organization as a manager.

What is Ted’s approach to the mobility tournament? Ted on the other hand has a laid of approach to things and his role in the organization is minimally seen in terms of level of productivity in the entity. His contribution to productivity and success in the organization are minimal.What will happen to Ben for not attending the Friday Meeting? Ben might be released off his duties, as his actions would be viewed as acts of rebellion and lack of adherence to directives provided by his seniors.In Ben’s shoes, should you take the same approach? Why or why not? Such an action would be a high level of insubordination due to failure to adhere to directives and rules provided by the management. This is not advisable even if an employee does not share similar ideals with the management of the organization.

Work Cited Ritti, R. Richard and Steve Levy. The Ropes to Skip and the Ropes to Know: Studies in Organizational Behavior.

New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009. Print. Robbins, Stephen P. and Timothy A. Judge.

Essentials of Organizational BEHAVIOR. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.


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