Drug 1: DXM DXM can be found inover-the-counter cold medications and it acts as a cough suppressor. Anindividual can obtain legally marketed DXM, in the form of cough syrup, tabletsor powder, at any supermarket, pharmacy, or even the internet. Some commonstreet names for DXM are: CCC, Skittles, Velvet or Robo.

The two most commonlyabused medications are Robitussin and Coricidin HBP. Individuals abuse thissubstance by finding high concentrations of DXM in over-the-counter coldmedicines. Abusers experience euphoria, visual and auditory hallucinations. Therecommended dose for cough remedies is 15-30mg three times daily; abusershowever will take in 250-1500mg in one sitting to experience feelings offloating and changes in hearing and touch. Recently there has been an increasein the use of tablets and gels, this change allows abusers to more ‘easily’ingest this drug throughout the day. DXM contacting products can contain otheringredients that have harmful effects as well, such as chlorepheniramine andguaifenesin.

One interesting fact about DXM is that Caucasians are at anincreased risk for overdose due to their poor metabolizers of DXM. Luckily, DXMoverdoes can be treated in the emergency room, but the prevalence of death fromaccidents is still very high. Drug 2: Kratom Kratom has been listed asa Drug and Chemical of Concern by the FDA and it has not been approved formedical use. The drug, Kratom, is a leaf from a tropical tree in SoutheastAsia. The leaves can be smoked, brewed into tea, or even injected into gel capsulesto consume. Kratom can lead to addiction and has many adverse effects. Wheningested at a low dose, Kratom acts as a stimulus on the body; abusersexperience physical energy and increased alertness.

When ingested at a higherdose Kratom acts as a sedative. Unwanted, negative side effects of Kratominclude: anorexia, hepatotoxicity, hallucinations, confusion, itching, nausea,tachycardia and much more. Kratom is becoming increasingly market in the US. Drug 3: Salvia DivinorumSalvia Divinorum is anherb from the mint family and it originated from the Sierra Mazaleca region ofMexico. The plant itself can be grown indoors or outdoors, but the preferredclimate is one that is humid semitropical.

The plant can grow to three feet talland has spade shaped leaves, with white flowers. Saliva Divinorum is ahallucinogen and the active ingredient that causes the psychoactive effects issaid to be Salvinorin A. When this drug is chewed, smoked or vaporized, usersexperience hallucinations, uncontrollable laughter, vivid colors and objectdistortions. Unfavorable effects of this drug include slurred speech, dizzinessand loss of coordination. To this day, neither Salivia Divinorum or SalvinorinA have been approved for medical use. Salvia Divinorum is not controlled by theCSA, but some sites have advertised the drug as an alternative to otherhallucinogens. Return to the Home Pageof the DEA and use the “search” button and enter: “Statistics andFacts”.

Click on the link to “Methamphetamine Lab Incidents”.  How many total incidentsin the U.S. were there in 2014? 9,338.   How does this compare to 2013? In 2013 there was a total of 12,050 incidents;therefore, there were 2,712 less incidents in 2014.

Which state had thegreatest number of incidents? In 2014, Indiana had the greatest number of incidents.List all of the states with 1 or less reported incidents: Nevada, Hawaii, Alaska, Utah, Maryland, DC, RhodeIsland, and Vermont all had 1 incident or less. How many incidents occurredin Kentucky in 2014?   468    In 2013?     476   . How many incidentsoccurred in Ohio in 2014?     939     In 2013?    1,157  .  Return to the home pageof the DEA and click on the “Drug Information” tab, then click on the”Drug Fact Sheets”.

Click on “steroids” and write a briefreport on howsteroids are administered and what the current trafficking trends are forsteroids Ananolic steroids aremanufactured forms of the hormone testosterone. Anabolic steroids are typicallyabused by athletes and body builders. Steroids can come in form of tablets,liquid drops, transdermal patches, and even injectable solutions.

With a varietyof forms, there are a variety of ways this drug can be administered. Accordingto the DEA website, “steroids are ingested orally, injected intramuscularly orapplied to the skin.  Abusers will administerthe drug 10-100 times the recommended therapeutic amount. Anabolic steroidabusers desired effect is to gain muscle mass or enhance performance. Users andabusers purchase anabolic steroids from the internet or at places such as gyms,competitions and schools. These illegal drugs are trafficked into the U.

S fromabroad. Under the same tab,Click on the link to “Federal Trafficking Penalties” Write a summaryreport on the Federal Penalties for trafficking cocaine in various amounts inthe United States:The penalties for trafficking cocaine vary basedon offense and the quantity of drug trafficked. If it is an individual’s firstoffense and there are 500-4999g grams of cocaine (Schedule 1) they will have aminimum sentence of 5 years, but their sentence will not exceed 40 years.However, if there is a death during the trafficking the individual will receiveno less than 20 and no more than life.

The fines for a first-time offense alsovary. If an individual is caught with 500-4999g a second time, then the minimumsentence is 10 years, but the sentence will not exceed life in prison. If thereis a death during the second offense, the individual will be sentenced to lifeimprisonment. The DEA website also mentions that a second defense will resultin a fine of no more than $8 million if an individual, and $50 million if notan individual. The penalties for trafficking 5kgs or more, however, are significantlygreater. For a first-time offense, an individual trafficking this amount, willbe sentenced to no less than 10 years and no more than life. If there is adeath during the crime, then there is a minimum of 20 years and no more thanlife. There are also fines associated with this level of cocaine trafficking.

If an individual is charged with a second offense of trafficking 5kgs or more,then the individual will be sentenced to no less than 20 years and no more thanlife and if a death occurred then the subject will be sentenced to lifeimprisonment. The last penalty the DEA website mentions are for individuals whohave had 2 or more prior offenses. If an individual has two or more prioroffenses, they will be sentenced to life in prison.

There will also be a fineapplied; no more than $20 million if an individual, and no more than $75million if not an individual.     Click on the DEA tab for”Prevention” and click on “Get Smart About Drugs” link.Finally, type in “Spice” to view the Spice/K2, Synthetic Marijuanaarticle. In your own words write a summary report on what it is; its origin;and the dangers related to it:The street name, Spice, represents the common drugsynthetic marijuana. Spice is a manufactured version of THC. THC,tetrahydrocannabinol, is the psychoactive component within marijuana.

Spice isa designer synthetic drug and it can be classified as a synthetic cannabinoid. Syntheticcannabinoids are sold by convenience stores and gas stations as “herbalincense” that are “not to be consumed by humans.”  Spice can also be purchased online, which isdangerous because internet suppliers often spray the plant mixture with unknownchemicals in unknown quantities. Spice is primarily manufactured in Asia, thensmuggled into the United States as misbranded imports. The manufacturers inAsia, as well as online do not control for mechanisms that cause contamination,this can be particularly harmful for individuals to ingest. The sprayed plant,herbal mixture, is often administered by smoking. Synthetic Marijuana has manyadverse effects and has been the cause of many overdose deaths.

Spice has beenreported to cause hallucinations, paranoid delusions, violence, tachycardia,high blood pressure, anxiety, pallor, numbness, and seizures. Due to all theseharmful effects, poison control and state public health centers have issuedwarnings on the abuse of “herbal incense.” Visit one of the otherwebsites listed above and report on the most interesting things that you found.Website URL: http://www.themix.org.

uk/drink-and-drugs/legal-highsThewebsite I chose to visit was “The Mix.” I personally liked this website becauseit speaks to a younger audience, making it more interesting and easier tofollow. I went to the link, drinks and drugs and found information concerninglegal highs. The first article I clicked explained what a legal high was. Ilearned that a legal high is like a legal drug and they can be syntheticallydesigned or sold within a pharmacy. Legal highs can cause different effects andare dangerous for individuals. The second article debunked 10 myths concerninglegal highs. The first myth the article debunked was that legal highs were notas strong as illegal drugs.

I learned that not only are legal highs stilldangerous, but they can often be more potent than illegal drugs due to theirpurer content. Despite the term, “legal highs,” legal highs are not actuallylegal. There is a new act called, Psychoactive Substance Act, that states theproduction or distribution of legal highs is illegal, however it isn’t anoffense to possess them. Forensic tests have also found banned substances inlegal highs, which is also illegal. The article also enlightens the readerabout the true intentions of legal high distributors and manufactures. Thearticle mentions that most synthetic legal highs are manufactured in China andmass-produced without conducting medical tests. In my opinion, this isimportant for potential users to read because these “legal” drugs are beingsold without any control or standards.

Just because a substance is a legalhigh, doesn’t mean the substance is safe to consume. In fact, the article alsomentions the 2009-2010 mephedrone scare that killed man individuals. Mephadronewas a legal high prior to the incident, but now it is classified as a Class Bdrug. This website reiterated the fact that just because a substance is a”legal high” does not mean you know what you are consuming and you are safefrom its effects. Prior to reading these articles, I didn’t know what wasconsidered a legal high. I just assumed these drugs were less harmful.

However,after reading these articles I learned legal highs can be just as dangerous andshould be avoided because there can always be harmful, illegal substanceswithin these drugs. 

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