Drug 1: DXM

DXM can be found in
over-the-counter cold medications and it acts as a cough suppressor. An
individual can obtain legally marketed DXM, in the form of cough syrup, tablets
or powder, at any supermarket, pharmacy, or even the internet. Some common
street names for DXM are: CCC, Skittles, Velvet or Robo. The two most commonly
abused medications are Robitussin and Coricidin HBP. Individuals abuse this
substance by finding high concentrations of DXM in over-the-counter cold
medicines. Abusers experience euphoria, visual and auditory hallucinations. The
recommended dose for cough remedies is 15-30mg three times daily; abusers
however will take in 250-1500mg in one sitting to experience feelings of
floating and changes in hearing and touch. Recently there has been an increase
in the use of tablets and gels, this change allows abusers to more ‘easily’
ingest this drug throughout the day. DXM contacting products can contain other
ingredients that have harmful effects as well, such as chlorepheniramine and
guaifenesin. One interesting fact about DXM is that Caucasians are at an
increased risk for overdose due to their poor metabolizers of DXM. Luckily, DXM
overdoes can be treated in the emergency room, but the prevalence of death from
accidents is still very high.

Drug 2: Kratom

Kratom has been listed as
a Drug and Chemical of Concern by the FDA and it has not been approved for
medical use. The drug, Kratom, is a leaf from a tropical tree in Southeast
Asia. The leaves can be smoked, brewed into tea, or even injected into gel capsules
to consume. Kratom can lead to addiction and has many adverse effects. When
ingested at a low dose, Kratom acts as a stimulus on the body; abusers
experience physical energy and increased alertness. When ingested at a higher
dose Kratom acts as a sedative. Unwanted, negative side effects of Kratom
include: anorexia, hepatotoxicity, hallucinations, confusion, itching, nausea,
tachycardia and much more. Kratom is becoming increasingly market in the US.

Drug 3: Salvia Divinorum

Salvia Divinorum is an
herb from the mint family and it originated from the Sierra Mazaleca region of
Mexico. The plant itself can be grown indoors or outdoors, but the preferred
climate is one that is humid semitropical. The plant can grow to three feet tall
and has spade shaped leaves, with white flowers. Saliva Divinorum is a
hallucinogen and the active ingredient that causes the psychoactive effects is
said to be Salvinorin A. When this drug is chewed, smoked or vaporized, users
experience hallucinations, uncontrollable laughter, vivid colors and object
distortions. Unfavorable effects of this drug include slurred speech, dizziness
and loss of coordination. To this day, neither Salivia Divinorum or Salvinorin
A have been approved for medical use. Salvia Divinorum is not controlled by the
CSA, but some sites have advertised the drug as an alternative to other

Return to the Home Page
of the DEA and use the “search” button and enter: “Statistics and
Facts”. Click on the link to “Methamphetamine Lab Incidents”. 

How many total incidents
in the U.S. were there in 2014? 9,338.   How does this compare to 2013? In 2013 there was a total of 12,050 incidents;
therefore, there were 2,712 less incidents in 2014.

Which state had the
greatest number of incidents? In 2014, Indiana had the greatest number of incidents.

List all of the states with 1 or less reported incidents: Nevada, Hawaii, Alaska, Utah, Maryland, DC, Rhode
Island, and Vermont all had 1 incident or less.

How many incidents occurred
in Kentucky in 2014?   468    In 2013?     476   .

How many incidents
occurred in Ohio in 2014?     939     
In 2013?    1,157  .


Return to the home page
of the DEA and click on the “Drug Information” tab, then click on the
“Drug Fact Sheets”. Click on “steroids” and write a brief
report on how
steroids are administered and what the current trafficking trends are for

Ananolic steroids are
manufactured forms of the hormone testosterone. Anabolic steroids are typically
abused by athletes and body builders. Steroids can come in form of tablets,
liquid drops, transdermal patches, and even injectable solutions. With a variety
of forms, there are a variety of ways this drug can be administered. According
to the DEA website, “steroids are ingested orally, injected intramuscularly or
applied to the skin.  Abusers will administer
the drug 10-100 times the recommended therapeutic amount. Anabolic steroid
abusers desired effect is to gain muscle mass or enhance performance. Users and
abusers purchase anabolic steroids from the internet or at places such as gyms,
competitions and schools. These illegal drugs are trafficked into the U.S from

Under the same tab,
Click on the link to “Federal Trafficking Penalties” Write a summary
report on the Federal Penalties for trafficking cocaine in various amounts in
the United States:

The penalties for trafficking cocaine vary based
on offense and the quantity of drug trafficked. If it is an individual’s first
offense and there are 500-4999g grams of cocaine (Schedule 1) they will have a
minimum sentence of 5 years, but their sentence will not exceed 40 years.
However, if there is a death during the trafficking the individual will receive
no less than 20 and no more than life. The fines for a first-time offense also
vary. If an individual is caught with 500-4999g a second time, then the minimum
sentence is 10 years, but the sentence will not exceed life in prison. If there
is a death during the second offense, the individual will be sentenced to life
imprisonment. The DEA website also mentions that a second defense will result
in a fine of no more than $8 million if an individual, and $50 million if not
an individual. The penalties for trafficking 5kgs or more, however, are significantly
greater. For a first-time offense, an individual trafficking this amount, will
be sentenced to no less than 10 years and no more than life. If there is a
death during the crime, then there is a minimum of 20 years and no more than
life. There are also fines associated with this level of cocaine trafficking.
If an individual is charged with a second offense of trafficking 5kgs or more,
then the individual will be sentenced to no less than 20 years and no more than
life and if a death occurred then the subject will be sentenced to life
imprisonment. The last penalty the DEA website mentions are for individuals who
have had 2 or more prior offenses. If an individual has two or more prior
offenses, they will be sentenced to life in prison. There will also be a fine
applied; no more than $20 million if an individual, and no more than $75
million if not an individual.





Click on the DEA tab for
“Prevention” and click on “Get Smart About Drugs” link.
Finally, type in “Spice” to view the Spice/K2, Synthetic Marijuana
article. In your own words write a summary report on what it is; its origin;
and the dangers related to it:
The street name, Spice, represents the common drug
synthetic marijuana. Spice is a manufactured version of THC. THC,
tetrahydrocannabinol, is the psychoactive component within marijuana. Spice is
a designer synthetic drug and it can be classified as a synthetic cannabinoid. Synthetic
cannabinoids are sold by convenience stores and gas stations as “herbal
incense” that are “not to be consumed by humans.”  Spice can also be purchased online, which is
dangerous because internet suppliers often spray the plant mixture with unknown
chemicals in unknown quantities. Spice is primarily manufactured in Asia, then
smuggled into the United States as misbranded imports. The manufacturers in
Asia, as well as online do not control for mechanisms that cause contamination,
this can be particularly harmful for individuals to ingest. The sprayed plant,
herbal mixture, is often administered by smoking. Synthetic Marijuana has many
adverse effects and has been the cause of many overdose deaths. Spice has been
reported to cause hallucinations, paranoid delusions, violence, tachycardia,
high blood pressure, anxiety, pallor, numbness, and seizures. Due to all these
harmful effects, poison control and state public health centers have issued
warnings on the abuse of “herbal incense.”

Visit one of the other
websites listed above and report on the most interesting things that you found.

Website URL: http://www.themix.org.uk/drink-and-drugs/legal-highs

website I chose to visit was “The Mix.” I personally liked this website because
it speaks to a younger audience, making it more interesting and easier to
follow. I went to the link, drinks and drugs and found information concerning
legal highs. The first article I clicked explained what a legal high was. I
learned that a legal high is like a legal drug and they can be synthetically
designed or sold within a pharmacy. Legal highs can cause different effects and
are dangerous for individuals. The second article debunked 10 myths concerning
legal highs. The first myth the article debunked was that legal highs were not
as strong as illegal drugs. I learned that not only are legal highs still
dangerous, but they can often be more potent than illegal drugs due to their
purer content. Despite the term, “legal highs,” legal highs are not actually
legal. There is a new act called, Psychoactive Substance Act, that states the
production or distribution of legal highs is illegal, however it isn’t an
offense to possess them. Forensic tests have also found banned substances in
legal highs, which is also illegal. The article also enlightens the reader
about the true intentions of legal high distributors and manufactures. The
article mentions that most synthetic legal highs are manufactured in China and
mass-produced without conducting medical tests. In my opinion, this is
important for potential users to read because these “legal” drugs are being
sold without any control or standards. Just because a substance is a legal
high, doesn’t mean the substance is safe to consume. In fact, the article also
mentions the 2009-2010 mephedrone scare that killed man individuals. Mephadrone
was a legal high prior to the incident, but now it is classified as a Class B
drug. This website reiterated the fact that just because a substance is a
“legal high” does not mean you know what you are consuming and you are safe
from its effects. Prior to reading these articles, I didn’t know what was
considered a legal high. I just assumed these drugs were less harmful. However,
after reading these articles I learned legal highs can be just as dangerous and
should be avoided because there can always be harmful, illegal substances
within these drugs. 


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