Educational institutions are facing a greater challenge from today’s students who have grown up with technologies (Prensky, 2001). The rapid growth of Information Technology and Communication (ICT) (Vallance, 2008), has resulted in a bigger push for educators to use these technologies in the classrooms (Sivapalan & Wan Fatimah, 2010). As such, the education landscape is rapidly evolving to accommodate the increasing use of these technological tools (McLoughlin & Lee, 2010), and to take advantage of their benefits to teaching and learning on a global scale (Gobbo & Girardi, 2001).
Research has also shown that technological advancements have a direct impact on the nature of education, as they bring about changes in the roles of learners and educators alike, as well as on the learning process (Mahajan, 2012). These changes thus result in enormous pressure for educational institutions to incorporate technology into the classrooms in order to produce skilled 21st-century workers (McLaren, 2007; Mahajan, 2012). Classrooms that involve a hybrid approach with one or more class sessions per week offered online, or at a minimum, lectures, discussion forums, and possibly practice exercises and assessments offered through an online learning management system. Instructors facilitate learning by structuring in and out-of-class work, clarifying content, encouraging critical thinking, and monitoring progress. However, there is still a lack of confidence amongst educators about the effectiveness of online education (Chung, 2008; Chiang, Chapman & Elder 2010) so there is a definite need to embed sound pedagogies into the creation of learning materials and let these pedagogies be the driver of educational innovation (Koehler, Mishra, Hershey & Peruski, 2004; Raja Maznah, 2004; McCarthy, 2010), in order to engage students in the course content (Tuparov, Tuparova & Peneva, 2004; Chiang, Chapman & Elder, 2010).