APUSH Chapter 12 Antebellum Culture and Reform Hudson River School – The first great school of American painters, based in New York. The painters portrayed that America’s “wild nature” made them superior to Europe. Cooper and the American Wilderness – James Fenimore Cooper was the first great American novelist (The Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer) His novels “The Leatherstocking Tales” were a celebration of the American spirit and landscape Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry D. Thoreau – rejected societal norms as a whole and supported individual independence. Controversial, though they gained many followers.
Brook Farm – established by George Ripley as an experimental community in West Roxbury, MA. Individuals would gather to create a new form of social organization, permitting everyone to self-realization. Brook Farm failed but inspired many similar communities. The Oneida Community – one of the most enduring utopian communities. It was declared that all residents were married to all other residents. Women were protected against unwanted childbearing and children were raised communally. Shakerism – commitment to complete celibacy, openly endorsed the idea of sexual equality.
Reform Movements – worked on behalf of temperance, education, poor, handicapped, etc Charles Finney – similar to Thoreau/Emerson, said that everyone could find salvation through individual effort. Gained support from women and eventually became very popular and gained a following. Temperance Crusade – against alcohol! Women were in favor. Access to alcohol was growing and with it was abuse. States started passing restriction laws. Phrenology – argued that the shape of a person’s skull determined their character and intelligence. Reforming Education – Horace Mann said that education was the only way to protect democracy.
He lengthened the academic year, doubled teachers salaries, and his examples lead to similar institutions in other states. Rehabilitation Reforms – the creation of “asylums: for criminals and mentally ill. Prisons were also reformed, with tighter restrictions meant to reform the criminals. Many such institutions soon fell victim to over-crowding. American Colonization Society/Failure of Colonization – proposed a gradual manumission of slaves with compensation to their owners. Met resistance from slaved themselves – the antislavery movement was rapidly losing strength.
Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis Racial Justification – manifest destiny cited the superiority of “the American Race” Opposition to Expansion – Henry clay and others feared that territorial expansion would reopen controversy over slavery and threaten the stability of the union Stephen Austin & Texas – A young immigrant from Missouri established the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822. Mexicans in the region attempted to refute further American immigration but it was too late – by 1835 already 30,000 Americans were established there.
San Jacinto – Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner, Mexican government eventually gave up on Texas Opposition to Annexation – Sam Houston offered to join Texas with the rest of the union, northerners opposed acquiring a large new slave territory and increasing the southern votes Oregon – Both Britain and the US claimed the territory but soon significant numbers of white Americans began emigrating to Oregon, outnumbering the British settlers. They killed much of the Indian population in part due to the measles epidemic.
Oregon Trail – 2,000 miles from the Great Plains and through the Rocky mountains. Difficult journey – thousands of people died on the trail though Indians were often helpful. Families worked together, most people walked for most of the time. James K. Polk – expressed “that the re-occupation of Oregon and the re-annexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are great American measures. ” Argued that if Britain did not cede all of Oregon to the US, war would be held, and neither party really wanted that, and so Oregon came to be.
Slidell Mission – Mexicans in Texas rejected Slidell’s offer, war was declared after American troops were attacked. California Gold Rush – started around 1848 and increased the population from 14,000 to 220,000 in four years. Created serious labor shortage in CA and Indians were forced into work Kansas-Nebraska Act – divided one territory into two to keep the slave balance equal; it immediately destroyed the Whig party, divided the democrats, and parties who opposed the bill came to form the Republican Party Election of 1856 – Fremont v. Buchanan who was nominated at 65 Dred Scott vs.
Sanford – Dred Scott, a slave from Missouri, owned by an army surgeon who had taken Scott into Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was forbidden. Now, the surgeon’s brother was claiming ownership of Scott. The court was extremely divided but eventually declared that Scott didn’t have a case because he wasn’t a legal citizen. Lincoln – nominated in the election of 1860. Believed that slavery was morally wrong, but he was not an abolitionist – he could not envision an easy alternative to slavery in the areas where it already existed. He wanted to “arrest the further spread” of slavery