There are different types of theories for intelligence. “Intelligence is the underlying ability to understand the world and cope with it challenges” (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 174 para 7). Spearman, Gardner, Sternberg, and Salovey/Mayer explains these different types of theories. Some intelligence is a natural type of common knowledge. “Charles Spearman (1904) suggested that the behaviors we consider intelligent have a common underlying factor that he labeled for general intelligence and specific intelligence.
He labored the two types of intelligence, “g” for general intelligence and “s” for specific intelligence” (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 175 para 2). A person that has general intelligence has no talents but can get by just fine. A person that has specific intelligence has excelled talents in music, poetry, or in business etc. … I consider myself as general intelligence because I don’t have special talents or skills. “Howard Gardner (1983/1993) suggested that there are a number of intelligences, not just one” (Rathus, 2008-2009pg. 175 para 5).
There are two main intelligence that Gardner pointed out, naturalist intelligence and existential intelligence. According to Gardner (2001), naturalist intelligence refers to the ability to look at natural events such as kinds of animals, plants or the stars above. Good examples of this kind of intelligence were the Native Americans before Europeans settled in. They had a common knowledge of nature. Most of their intelligence and education had no written language but instead they learned their intelligence by nature. “Existential intelligence means dealing with the larger philosophical issues of life” (Garner 2001).
This kind of intelligence focuses more on mathematical theories. Good examples of this are the Egyptians that built the Pyramids. Robert Sternberg (2000; Sternberg et al. ; 2003) constructed a three-pronged theory of intelligence. These three types of intelligence are analytical, creative and practical. Analytical intelligence means academic ability. This type of intelligence solves problems and acquires new knowledge by encoding information, combining and comparing bits of information between two or more subjects (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 76 para 1). Good example of this type of problems solving is combining and comparing the assassination between Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy. They were both assassinated in the sixties. Lincoln was assassinated in the Ford’s Theater and Kennedy was assassinated in a car that was a ford. Both of their last names are seven letters long. This is called encoding the elements. “Creative intelligence is the ability to cope with novel situation and generate many possible solutions to problems” (Rathus, 2008-2009) (Sternberg, 2001) pg. 176 para3).
This is a type of intelligence is to figure out the similarities and differences between subjects. My daughter is three years old and she already has a creative intelligence that became natural. She lines up her toys in order by color. She also stacks plastic cups until they fall over. She already knows the similarities and the differences between her toys. “Practical intelligence enables people to deal with other people, including difficult people, and the meet the demands of their environment” (Rathus, 2008-2009) (Sternberg, 2001) pg. 176 para4).
I, for an example have had difficult bosses in the past. I had to learn what they wanted and their expectations. Sometimes it was hard because the differences of culture, but I did my best. This became a common knowledge. “Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed the theory of emotional intelligence” (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 175, para 6). This type of intelligence is an insight into the feeling of other people that recognize and regulate one’s moods (Rathus, 2008-2009) (Salovey et al, 2002, pg. 177 para 1). My wife and I have this type of intelligence between us.
The emotional intelligence becomes natural between us because of growth of our marriage. She can tell what kind of mood that I am in because of my body language and vice versa. One time she wanted to talk to me about dreaming of moving down to Florida. At the time I did not feel like talking about it because of by my body language or comment that I made, so she backed off and waited until I was in the mood of dreaming. Emotional intelligence is a good way to cope with stress like communicating to your spouse and vice versa.
We talk to each other what is going on and what stress we have individually. This is always good because it keeps us close. The theory that I believe best describe intelligence comes from Robert Sternberg. He describes three different kinds of intelligence that are more of a common knowledge. I think that these types of intelligence can be examined with a simple test because it can show a person how successful they can be. These three types of intelligence can also show on how well a person can balanced against each other.
Through the test results, also, an individual can decide what mode of thinking is appropriate under certain conditions. Reference Gardner H. (2001, April 5). Multiple intelligence The New York Times p a20 Rathus S. A. (2008-2009). PSYCH student edition HDEV. Mason, OH: 4LTR Press/ Cengage Learning Salovey, Peter (2002) Perceived emotional intelligence, stress reactivity, and symptom reports. Sternberg R. J (2001) What is the common thread of creativity? American Psychologist