Food andepigenetic changesEpigenetics is ablooming field and listed a number offoods have been listed that are known to have a positive influence on health.
As a result of their far-reachingeffects, epigenetic changes are involved in the development of many illnesses,including some cancers and neurological diseases (Esteller, 2007). Because theseepigenetic modifications are reversible, there is great interest in findingmolecules – especially dietary sources – that might undo these damaging changesand prevent the development of the tumour. Theability of food components to interfere with molecular mechanisms causal to anorganism’s “physiome” has incited a revolution in thinking about what we eat.
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30 which is termed as nutrigenomics.Nutrigenomics maps the influenceof dietary molecules on the genome, to correlate consequential phenotypical divergencein the cellular response such as metabolic pathways and homeostatis of thebiological systems, which may be further controlled by genetic interactionsalso.31 Nutrigenomics extends from thestudy of the genome-wide influence of nutrition to the ensuing time-dependentresponse in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to express thephenotype of a biological system.32,33 genetic variation influencenutrikinetics (i.e., absorption, metabolism, elimination, or biological effectsof nutrients on human body) so optimizenutrition according to the one’s genotype. Nutrigenomics also includes precisedetermination of molecular mechanisms essential to human health and disease,advocating an enormous prospective for promoting health, and lowering mortalityand morbidity. Sophisticated molecular techniques based on the different omics(genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics)34 mayhelp us in this regard to develop a better understanding toward principles onnutrition and genomics.
Althoughpowerful analytical platforms are accessible to analyze genes, proteins, andmetabolites, their utilization to regulate nutrition factors in order tooptimize the metabolism is quite limited.35,36,37,38Studiesutilizing these analytical platforms (i.e., genomics, proteomics, andmetabolomics) offer precise information about a given phenotype, and theirintegration can provide the best possible resources which can help to unfoldthe effects of a biological dispute on an organism at the integrated metabolismlevel.45, 46 Undoubtedly, it is crucial thatthese methods are incorporated in standard routine investigations, however,there are various challenges due to alack of standardized statistical methods and public databases because theirpractice is still rare in modern nutrition science39,40,41,42,43Ayurveda takes a holistic approach toward food that integrates mind, body, andsoul, and toward several other stratifications to maintain harmonization of the Doshas or physiological factors according toindividualistic variability or Prakriti and other environmental factors.Ayurnutrigenomicsis a commune where food and drugs intersect to project their effects accordingto the genetic constitution (Prakriti) of a person at the systems biology level.
The influence of genetic variation on nutrikinetics (i.e., absorption, metabolism,elimination, or biological effects of nutrients on human body) have alsotraditionally been incorporated in the concept of ayurnutrigenomics which amalgamates information from genomics,proteomics, and metabolomics projected to provide a solid evidence-basedscienti?c foundation for the advancement of personalized nutrigenomicdietetics. Dietary consideration in terms of wholesome and unwholesomefood is an important component of Ayurvedic therapeutics.
Different clinical principleshave been mentioned in Ayurveda to advise a human being about preventive andpersonalized treatment, such as Prakriti (individual constitution), Dosha-Dushya (diseasestate and localization), and Satmya (habituation factor), to determine food,medicine, or lifestyle. Thus, we find that Ayurnutrigenomics presents a hugescope of development toward the understanding of nutrigenomics and molecularnutrition research. The fundamental recommendations can be very useful inframing health recommendations and personalized food design. The use ofmetabolome-standardized foods or nutraceuticals with different biochemicalcomponents may leverage novel therapeutics where drugs are not effective ontheir own, or from a preventive aspect in a vulnerable population. For this,Thediseases or phenotypes should be properly classified, and research should beinitiated to discover the molecular pathways or network associated with thesefood ingested by using Novel advanced methods for mass measurements of genes,transcripts, proteins, and metabolites united with advanced imaging,epidemiology, clinical interventions with diverse threats, and ultimatelybioinformatics, to amalgamate all information in systems biology.44 and analysis of clinical data and emphasis onmapping, deciphering these mechanism in order to facilitate therapeuticdelivery.
This will help us understand the pharmacologyof the food and herbs that interfere with the disease complex that positivelymodulates the system (body and mind) against the disease.45 Thistranslation of disease and treatment philosophy in terms of recent findings ofthe “omics” level of research may discover novel targets or strategies fordietetic considerations, against diseases.It is evident that theabove-reviewed techniques can be of immense importance in the way forward forAyurnutrigenomic research. From nutriepidemiology to food quality-controlefforts, metabolomics will surely find inclusive applications in standardresearch methodology for obvious reasons. ChallengesSuggestions:· We have evidences now aboutcorrelation of prakriti based diet and diseases but it has not been updated inthousands of years when genetic evolution and environmental changes haveoccurred. Hence, more large scale nutritional epidemiology researches acrossvarious ethnicities should be done to follow Ayurvedic understanding anddevelop evidence to find its justification in the present time and itsuniversal applicability as claimed and to reinforce the precision of healthrecommendations.
Distinctive research inspired fromtraditional ayurvedic principles and development efforts toward safe and personalizedfoods will favor not only favour better food and lifestyle recommendations but also development of Ayurceuticals andsmart Ayurnutrigenomic-inspired foods to augment the healing processes is acrucial area of nutrition research to cure already fully developed diseases.· In nutrigenomics,meticulous setof systematic and analytical technique(s) from thin-layer chromatography, tohigh end technology such as Raman spectroscopy, nanotechnology for metaboliteanalysis or metabolite pro?ling,behavior,responses towards body milieu can bedone to get a estimate of quantity andcounteractive changes of a given tissue or biological ?uid due to food ormedication.· because of The diversity of plantfood , metabolite signatures in gene and/or protein expression profiles throughunremitting interaction of herbal plant food within body, can also be ofeminent significance in food and nutraceutical standardizatied recommendationsand their use in “biological ?ngerprinting” of medicinal plant extracts (i.e.,bioactivity spectra of phyto-extracts or phyto-compounds vs. their medicinalef?cacy in test animal or human systems).
TablegDosha Best Tastes Most Aggravating Tastes VATA Salty, Sweet, Sour Bitter, Astringent, Pungent PITTA Sweet, Bitter, Astringent Pungent, Sour, Salty KAPHA Bitter, Pungent, Astringent Sweet, Salty, SourAgni is weakened by a diet and lifestyleinappropriate to your Dosha. WhenAgni is weakened it allows for the accumulation of Ama Digestive-Metabolictoxins. Despite enough evidence about the human Prakriti, orphysiological type and its relation to metabolism and health, the series ofexperiments reviewed in this paper,Traditional systems should worktoward developing scientifically validated approaches to preventive andcurative diet, chronic disease care and treatments.though it provided a understanding of the systems biology of adisease or a disease complex at the genomic level 46.Concerns over thelegitimacy of whole system approach ofayurveda(e.g.safety,biochemicalevidence,efficacy) can overcome by generating and analyzing new data of large sample sizes in order tounravel complex connections between metabolism(agni) andpsychosomatotypes(prakriti) .
Moreover,the population-wide unevenness athwartpopulations endows one with a major thrust to promote the quest forunderstanding the variability in healthy individuals. It could initiatea plethora ofscientific projects that will answer crucial questions about system-level understanding of biologythrough network analyses and molecular interactions and mechanisms essential to human health anddisease, to explore an enormous prospective for promoting health, and loweringmortality and morbidity. thus can help inbridging the gap between reductionist molecular science and traditional holistic approach– at least partially. Further Sophisticated moleculartechniques based on the different omics (genomics, epigenomics,transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) may help us in this regard. This reviewintends to draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with trans-disciplinaryresearch by refining and recreating the methodologies,tools to facilitate integrationwhich could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and healthsciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary healthconditions. Tools to analyse patients a,agniand foodTools used by thistraditionalsystem of medicine are deshmeshpraiksha and nadivigyan both of have the potential to provide rich descriptive datathough due to its subjective nature,limitation are irreproducible and practionerbias.
Moreover,major shortcoming of subjective approaches is theirheavy reliance on an individual’s recollection of events. Therefore, dependingon the context, such approaches may be prone to under- or over-reporting.while various assessment tools(MUST,NRI,PG-SGA,SGA,Bodycompostionanalysis) and equations to calculate their metabolic rate like harris benedictequation,miffin-joen,schofield equation are used in modern nutrtion theseobjective techniques are fairly accurate, precise, reproducible and validatedagainst both indirect calorimetry and DLW methods which are gold standards.but these tools have limitationslike With so many approaches available, theaccurate assessment of PA and quantification of EE can be very challenging. Itis important to appreciate that irrespective of the apparent sophistication oftechniques, all have inherent strengths and weaknesses. The use ofUnited States-based reference data for assessing adolescent growth worldwide isa matter of concern, and it is recommended that research need to be conductedin order to evaluate their universal applicability,There is an urgent need for moreTEE and measured BMR studies, coupled with time–motion studies from developingcountries that cover prevailing and changing life styles.