Food essentially
functions as a key to satisfy hunger. Abraham Maslow (1954) stated that it is
served to fulfilling biological needs as incorporated in the very popular
hierarchy pyramid. According to Moon (2010) food consumption is reflected as a
simple act of fulfilling biological needs. Generally, food overviewed at its
lowest level of abstraction is necessary to sustain life (Conner & Armitage
2002). Indeed, foods serve beyond the boundary of gastrointestinal tract and
more than just a nutritional fact and value.

 

A study by Nee
and Sani (2001) found that food is a product that is rich in nutrients required
by microorganisms, the growth of bacteria in food may be showing to
contamination through the major sources like water, air, dust, equipment,
sewage, insects, rodents and food handler. Furthermore, there will be
increasing chances of food contamination due to improper food handling as a
result of changes in food preparation techniques as well as eating habits. A good
food hygiene practises is needed to prevent other gastrointestinal infections
such as hepatitis A and gastroenteritis. In addition, food-borne illness outbreaks are often caused by poor personal
hygiene among food handlers. Although many efforts have been made to improve
various hygiene standards and practices, training and education of food handler
as well as consumer awareness, food-borne illness still remain a public health
dilemma in many countries.

 

According to Park,
Kwak and Chang (2010), improper food preparation practices can cause food-borne
illness. When food handlers do not practice proper food safety and personal hygiene
during food preparation, they may become vehicles for microorganism’s for
example through their hand, mouth and skin (Omemu & Bankole 2005). The
safety of food handler is determined by several factors starting from the
quality of the raw material, to food handling and storage practices. Food
handlers with poor hygiene can be the sources of food-borne diseases either
directly or non-directly. These factors are largely influenced by the knowledge
and practises of food handlers.

 

Moreover, according to The World Health Organization
(WHO, 2006), several factors associated with food borne illness such as poor
food safety knowledge, poor personal hygiene, cross-contamination as well time
and temperature abuse during storage and preparation of food.

 

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