Frantz Fanon was the first to write about thepsychic effects of colonialism in Africa. He was as a psychiatrist, politicalphilosopher, literary critic, and a revolutionary, personally experienced thepsychological effects of colonialism which is resulted in the books like BlackSkin, White Masks and The Wretched of the Earth. Fanon’s works inspired and created atheoretical background to fight against colonialism and its impacts.

  His works,such as Black Skin, White Masks, inAlgeria compelled him to take an active part in the Algerian independentmovement. His active participation in the liberation movement formed the basisof these fundamental books on racism, psychiatry and colonialism. As apsychiatrist, Fanon has explored the psychological aspects of colonialism andtheir deep psychic impacts on the colonized people in Africa. It is from thispoint of view, the present paper is an attempt to understand how Frantz Fanonhas analyzed the psychic impact of colonialism on the unconscious fantasy ofblack woman in his Black Skin, White Masks psychoanalytically. Keywords:Black Skin, White Masks, colonialism, psychology, Black Woman etc.

FrantzFanon as a psychiatrist, political philosopher and literary critic has analyzedthe psychological aspects of colonialism and their deep psychic effects on theblack people. In his famous book Black Skin, White Masks which dealswith an exploration of the psychological effects of colonialism on the peoplein Africa and racism that lies beneath the colonial system and colonialismacross the globe.  In this book, Fanoninterprets that how the colonized people have internalized colonial ideologyand the ways through which inferiority complex is inculcated among the colonized.He also proposes how through the mechanism of racism the blacks can put an endto their oppressors. He has emphasized on the psychology of colonialism and analyzedit in relation to its deep association with the language, the black man and theblack woman, and the white man and woman, the dependency complex of thecolonized and the psychopathology of the blacks.             The psychopathology of the blacksand their life under colonialism has led Fanon to interpret the black woman’sunconscious fantasy. His main purpose is to uncover the formation of the blackself and the suffering of the blacks under the French colonialism. In thechapter called “The Woman of Color and the White Man” in Black Skin, WhiteMasks, Fanon has examined the unconscious fantasy of the black woman in thewhite world.

Hugh Butts writes about this that Fanon “hypothesizes that a blackwoman in a sexual liaison with a white man unconsciously fantasizes that she is”whitened” by the relationship” (Butts 1016). The black woman is always seen inher unconscious fantasy that she wants to change her race and herself from theblack into the white. It is for him is nothing but the psychological result ofthe colonized women and their association with the colonizers. It is also aneffect of the misery of being black in the white world and its deep psychicimpact on the mind.

In fact, he says that colonialism has a deep impact on thepsyche of both the black man and woman which is to be just examinedpsychologically.             To analyse and explore theunconscious fantasy of the Black woman in the world of colonialism, David Cautein his book Fanon says that he “devotes painful images to an explorationof the West Indian girl’s search for a white husband or, more a mate blessedwith a lightest possible skin. The Negress of Martinique has only one concern,to turn white; the mulatto girl must at all costs avoid slipping back intoblackness” (Caute 12). He further says that a number of women from Martiniqueswanted to change their race into white.

For instance, the woman as described byFanon “named as what Mayotte wants is a kind of lactification, for, in a word,the race must be whitened; every woman in Martinique knows this, says it,repeats it. Whiten the race, save the race, but not in the sense that one mightthink; not “preserving the uniqueness of that part of the world in which theygrew up”, but make sure that it will be white” (Black Skin, White Masks33).             In Antilles, according to Fanon, theblack women are not much more interested in the black men. They are usuallygiven least preference in comparison with the Whites. Fanon in this contextsays that “every woman in the Antilles, whether in a causal flirtation or in aserious affair, is determined to select the least black of the men” (BSWM 33).  He alsodescribes his own experience about such feelings of the young Martinique girlstudents in France who admitted to him, “with complete candor – completelywhite candor – that they would find it impossible to marry black men … Besides,they added, it is not that we deny blacks have any good qualities, but you knowit is so much better to be white (BSWM 33).            The psychic impact of colonialism isseen in the changed mind set of the black woman.

She is not much interested inmarrying a black man. She always desires to marry with a white man. She is toomuch attracted towards the White men for love and even ready to submit everythingto the Whites without any expectations except a little bit whiteness in herlife. For instance, Fanon tells that the fantasy and desire of a woman of colorcalled Mayotte Capecia and submission of herself without any demand except abit of Whiteness in her life, as: Mayotte loves a white man to whom she submitsin everything. He is her lord. She asks nothing, demands nothing, except a bitof whiteness in her life. When she tries to determine in her own mind whetherthe man is handsome or ugly; she writes, “All I know is that he had blue eyes,blond hair, and a light skin, and that I loved him” (BSWM 29).  Though Mayotte describes that what she hadloved of the white man that of the blue eyes, blond hair and a light skin but,what Fanon says that this woman’s description of the blue eyes on the otherside frighten the Negroes of the Antilles.

It means whatever the Black womenloved of the White men is frightened the Black men.            The young girls’ attitude towardsthe marriage with the Negro in Martinique was changed in the then Frenchcolony. This type of attitude of the young generation towards marrying witheach other in Africa always disturbs Fanon.

He says about these women who usedto say that: “Everyone of has a white potential, but some try to ignore it andothers simply reverse it. As far as I am concerned, I wouldn’t marry a Negrofor anything in the world” (BSWM 33). For Fanon, these black women are in thequest of white men. He also warns them that the white men do not marry with theblack women. His analysis of the black women is that they are completely underthe influence of the psychic effect of colonialism because the unconsciousfantasies of these women are always yearning towards the white man’s quest andthis is what he accounts as:             All these frantic women of color inquest of white men are waiting.

And one of      thesedays, surely, they will be surprised to find that they do not want to go back,          they will dream of “a wonderful night,a wonderful lover, a white man.” Possibly,   too,they will become aware, one day, that “White men do not marry black    women.” But they have consented to run thisrisk; what they must have is         Whitenessat any price. (BSWM 34)            The attraction of the blacks towardsthe whites is naturally seen in Africa. The psychic change in the black womanreflects that she wants to change her race into the white.

It is a type ofunconscious fantasy of becoming white is what one can say that it controls herbehavior and life. This psychic state of the mind leads the black women to giveleast preference to the black men than the white men. For Fanon “she had beenrecognized through her overcompensating behavior. She was no longer the womanwho wanted to be white; she was white. She was joining the White world” (BSWM41). But, on the other side, such behavior of these Black women uncalculated afeeling of hatred of the black man. Therefore, when Fanon talks about aneducated Mulatto he says that how she behaves and expresses from thepsychological point of view about the Negro:            The educated mulatto woman,especially if she is a student, engages in doubly      equivocal behavior. She says, “I do not like the Negro becausehe is savage.

Not          savage in acannibal way, but lacking refinement”. An abstract point of view. And     when one points but to her that in thisrespect some black people may be her     superiors,she falls back on their ugliness. (BSWM 41)Thistype of behavior of the black women can also be said that it is an impact ofthe racial stereotypes of the European culture which adversely affected on theminds of the Black women who have shown their attitude towards the Black men.It is just like the attitude of the whites towards the Blacks which reflectedin the opinions of the Blacks themselves that they could not understood itspsychic effects.            The changed attitude of the blackwomen toward the black men is also seen on other occasions in this book. Fanonfocuses on the psychic aspects of the women when he describes an incident when agirl who knew him quite jumped up in anger because he had said to her, in asituation where the word was not only appropriate but the one word that suitedthe incident as: “You, as a Negress-.’ ‘Me? a Negress?, can’t you see I’mpractically white? I despise Negroes.

Niggers stink. They’re dirty and lazy.Don’t ever mention niggers to me” (BSWM 35). He portrays through this incidentthat how seriously colonialism has affected the psyche of the black women andtheir immediate reaction because they cannot even tolerate to call them asNegress. Fanon has further examined several passages from Abdoulaye Sadji’s storyto understand the living reactions of the woman of color to the European tosupport his statements about the black woman’s unconscious fantasy.

The Negressand the Mulatto are the two women about whom he says that the basic concern ofthe first one is just to turn herself into white and the second one not onlywants to turn herself into white but she wants to avoid slipping with black.             Obviously one can conclude thatthere is a deep psychic impact of colonialism on the black women in Africa.  Fanon has pointed out that the psychic effectof colonialism is seen on the unconscious fantasy of black woman which led herto turn herself into white. It is due to this she not just wants to changeherself into white but her entire race. These consequences of colonialism asFanon has pointed out that have completely controlled her behavior andcompelled to act foolishly in the open drama of the Black and White in theWorld. The black women who are depicted by Fanon are totally brainwashed womenwhose ultimate unconscious fantasy was not to marry a black man but to a whiteman or to submit themselves without any expectation except a little bitwhiteness in their life or to flee from the misery of Blackness in thesurrounding areas wherein they live. The psychological consequence ofcolonialism is thus reflected through the changed behavior of the black womenwho are set on themselves in changing their entire race into white.

It hascontrolled the entire life of the black women.  ReferencesButts, Hugh F. Frantz Fanon’s Contribution to Psychiatry: The Psychology of Racism               and Colonialism. Journal of TheNational Medical Association,  Vol.

71, No. 10,               1979,pp.1015-18. “

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2537519/>.”Caute, David. Fanon.

Great Britain: Fontana/Collins,1970.Fanon,Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann.London: Pluto   Press, 1952, 2008.

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