From 1782 to 1801, Great Britain supplied the preliminary investment that got the trade off the ground and the texts Americans published. The war could change the fact that London was the epicenter of English-language book culture and America was on the ascent. The leading purposefulness of the American book trade was to replace British imports with its own publication of the same editions. However, it turned out to be a challenging objective to accomplish. During the war, barely any textbooks were printed with the renowned exception of the Bible printed in 1782 by the Scot Robert Aitken in Philadelphia. This was the first English Bible with an American imprint. Aitken claimed he was nearly ruined by the venture, because he was paid in worthless paper money and because the advent of peace precipitated an avalanche of cheap imported Bibles.

British merchants continued to dump books in America for the rest of the 1780s as the American economy slumped. In 1784 Thomas Dobson arrived in Philadelphia from Scotland with large stocks of books. He quickly became major bookseller, but as he sold his books, instead of investing their profit in more books, he embarked on publishing, using his stock as security for additional loans. His first large venture was appropriately the first American edition of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations in 1788. To undersell imports the original London quarto. The history of newspapers is an often-dramatic chapter of the human experience going back some five centuries. The first printed forerunners of the newspaper appeared in Germany in the late 1400’s in the form of news pamphlets, often highly embellished in content.

The new printing press altered the extent and influence of the newspaper, paving the way for modern-day journalism. The first weekly newspapers to employ Gutenberg’s press transpired in 1609. In Renaissance Europe, handwritten newsletters were distributed confidentially among wholesalers, passing along information about everything from wars and economic conditions to social customs and “human interest” features.

Although the papers did not name the cities in which they were printed to avoid government oppression, their precise location can be acknowledged because of their use of the German language. Despite these concerns over oppression, the papers were a success, and newspapers quickly spread throughout Central Europe. In England, newspapers were unhindered from government control, and people began to recognize and appreciate the power of free press. Papers took benefit of this newfound freedom and began publishing more frequently. With biweekly publications, papers had extra space to run advertisements and market reports. This changed the responsibility of journalists from simple observers to active players in commerce, as business owners and investors developed a reliability on the papers to market their products and to help them predict business developments.

Once publishers noticed the growing popularity and profit potential of newspapers, they founded daily publications. Newspapers did not come to the American colonies until September 25, 1690, when Benjamin Harris printed Public Occurrences, before escaping to America for publishing an article about a purported Catholic plot against England, Harris had been a newspaper editor in England. Fourteen years passed before the next American newspaper, The Boston News-Letter, launched.

Fifteen years after that, The Boston Gazette began publication, followed immediately by the American Weekly Mercury in Philadelphia. Newspaper organizations remain relevant because they publish news and information and get it out to the world when readers want it newspapers are there for their readers, providing timely reports of events as they happen. But the headlines and timely reports are only part of the job. Readers want to know not just “what happened,” they want to know “how” and “why,” and they want to understand the inferences surrounding the event. In modern society, radios are common technology in the vehicle and at home.

In fact, in today’s world one would be floored if they found anyone who has not heard a radio within his or her life. This was not always the case. Before the 19th century, wireless radio interaction was a thing of fantasy.

Even after the development of the radio in the late 1800s, it took many years before radios went mainstream and became a household fixture. The history of the radio is a fascinating one that changed how the world linked and transferred from distances both far and near. With World War I the importance of the radio became apparent and its usefulness increased significantly. During the war, the military used it almost exclusively and it became an invaluable tool in sending and receiving messages to the armed forces.

In the 1920s, following the war, radios began to increase in popularity amongst civilians. Across the U.S. and Europe, broadcasting stations such as KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and England’s British Broadcasting Company (BBC) was on the rise. In 1920 the Westinghouse Company got a commercial radio license which allowed for the creation of KDKA.

KDKA would then become the first radio station officially certified by the government. It was also a collecting source and was used by the government to achieve public support. The way in which radio was used also changed the world after World War II. While it had been a source of entertainment in the form of serial programs, it began to focus more on playing the music of the time. The “Top-40” in music became popular and the target audience went from families to pre-teens up to adults in their mid-thirties.

Music and radio continued to rise in popularity until they became synonymous with one another. FM radio stations began to overtake the original AM stations, and new forms of music, such as rock and roll, began to emerge. Today radio has become much more than anyone could have ever imagined. Traditional radios and radio broadcasting have steadily become a thing of the past.

Instead it has steadily evolved with more satellite radio and Internet radio stations. Radios are found not only in homes, but they are also a staple in vehicles. In addition to music, radio talk shows have also become a popular option for many. Before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with television sets could be measured in the thousands. By the late 1990s, 98 percent of U.

S. homes had at least one television set, and those sets were on for an average of more than seven hours a day. The typical American spends (depending on the survey and the time of year) from two-and-a-half to almost five hours a day watching television. It is significant not only that this time is being spent with television but that it is not being spent engaging in other activities, such as reading or going out or socializing. Electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco on Sept.

7, 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old inventor who had lived in a house without electricity until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to conceive of a system that could capture moving images in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing in Russia had conducted some crude experiments in transmitting images 16 years before Farnsworth’s first success.

A mechanical television system, which scanned images using a rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern, had been demonstrated by John Logie Baird in England and Charles Francis Jenkins in the United States earlier in the 1920s. However, Farnsworth’s invention, which scanned images with a beam of electrons, is the direct ancestor of modern television. The first image he transmitted on it was a simple line. RCA, the company that dominated the radio business in the United States with its two NBC networks, invested $50 million in the development of electronic television. To direct the effort, the company’s president, David Sarnoff, hired the Russian-born scientist Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, who had participated in Rosing’s experiments. In 1939, RCA televised the opening of the New York World’s Fair, including a speech by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was the first president to appear on television. Later that year RCA paid for a license to use Farnsworth’s television patents.

RCA began marketing television sets with 5 by 12 in picture tubes. The company also began broadcasting regular programs, including scenes captured by a mobile unit and, on May 17, 1939, the first televised baseball game between Princeton and Columbia universities. By 1941 the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), RCA’s main competition in radio, was broadcasting two 15-minute newscasts a day to a tiny audience on its New York television station. Every day we are exposed to a lifestyle depicted in films, to shows, billboards and commercials.

We see people outfitted a certain way, living life “to the fullest” in a certain lifestyle. Unfortunately, these characters are created to market certain products or raise ratings. Often what is portrayed may not be aligned with reality and yet we may feel that.  All media and advertising is not necessarily deceptive. The existence of bias in news media is well known. Indeed, it is so common that several websites are established to spot and report the bias in news. A link between subscription fees and media bias shown that when readers prefer news consistent with their political opinions, newspapers slant news toward extreme positions to alleviate price competition for subscribers. For many media outlets, however, most of the revenue stems from advertising rather than subscription.

  When making advertising choices, advertisers evaluate both the size and the composition of the readership of the different outlets. The profile of the readers matters because advertisers want to target readers who are likely to be receptive to their advertising messages. A biased media effects what we think the truth is. It nudges us towards or away from ideas, action, philosophy that we might choose or not choose otherwise. The outcome of a biased media is manipulation.

It encourages ignorance and emotion over understanding and considered action. A biased media could be the factor that influences any number of outcomes.   

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