Fungal controlagainst bark beetles Studieson use of entomopathogenic fungi against bark beetles was followed as per theearlier standard methods adopted by Batta (2007) and Jakus and Blanzee (2011)Pinus wallichiana branches used in the experimentsNaturallyinfested branches of P.
wallichiana were collected during2017(April to November2017) from a severely infested pine stand located inNowpora village (33°61.078′ N, 075°18.700′ E, elevation5920 ft.
) in Anantnag District, Jammu & Kashmir (Figure 1) and forest checkpoint, Tangmarg (340 03.797′ N, 074024.948′ E, Elevation 7552 feet) in BaramullaDistrict, Jammu & Kashmir (Figures 1–3). The infested branches were selected afterobserving bark beetle infestations (Figure 4–5). The sample branches were transportedto the Animal House, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir in plasticboxes for the evaluation of fungaltreatments against I. stebbingi. Fungal species used in the treatment Thecommercial bioprepration of three entomopathogenic fungi viz.,B.
bassiana, M. anisopliaeand L. lecaniiwere obtained from GreenLife Biotech Laboratory, Somanur, Coimbatore, India. Experiment was performedfrom April to November 2017.
A total of 90 branches naturally infested with bark beetles, categorized into five groups (G1–G5),were used in the experiment for each bark beetle species. Each replicaterepresented three infested branches and six replicates per experimentaltreatment were used for each bark beetle species (Table 1). Theused insecticide was cyclone (active ingredient: Chlorpyriphos 50% +Cypermethrin 5%). Thefungal preparation was diluted in water: 1ml biopreparation/1000 ml water withfour drops of a common detergent as a wetting agent.
Each fungal suspensioncontained 1.0 × 109 spores of fungi in 1 ml. The fungal suspensionswere applied with a hand sprayer at 500 ml per log (Table 1). High volumes offungal suspensions were used for effective treatment so that suspensions wouldpenetrate spontaneously after application. After 10 days nine branches fromthree treated replicates in each group were carefully debarked and thepercentage mortality of each barkbeetle specieswere calculated and compared (Table 1). The same procedurewas applied for calculating percentage mortality of each bark beetle species after 20 days oftreatment. Fungal treatment of bark beetle adults (Petri plate assay) Inthis method a total of 15 petri dishes containing filter papers were used;three replicates were maintained for each treatment. The treatments wereperformed by applying two rapid jetting sprays standardized at 1.
0 ml perreplicate using a small calibrated hand sprayer (1 liter capacity) equippedwith a nozzle suited to low-volume spray application (Batta, 2007). In eachpetri dish 40 adults of each barkbeetle specieswere introduced before spraying. The same spray volumes (1ml per replicate) were applied in the other treatments (Table 2). The mortalitypercentage from each treated group was evaluated after 2, 4 and 6 days aftertreatment. This mortality was shown either by the lack of movement of treatedadults within five minute period of continuous observation or by the appearanceof mycelial growth on the bodies of dead adults. The beetles were thenincubated in petri dishes under humid conditions for one week to promotemycelial growth with the conidia and the conidiophores on their bodies.