Gas Temperature and Gas VolumeStep One: Conducting theInvestigationIntroduction:Thisreport discusses an experiment to investigate the relationship that existsbetween temperature and volume of air in a sealed syringe that is either heatedor cooled with water in different temperature. Charles’ Law,whereV is the volume, T is temperature, and k is constant of proportionally, statesthat the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant pressure is directlyproportional to the Kelvin temperature. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions,the law can be written as,and it shows that as thetemperature goes up, the volume also goes up, and vice versa.
Inthis experiment, collecting enough data (at least 5 data points with 3 trialseach) is expected to properly study the relationship between gas temperatureand gas volume in constant pressure. According to the gas law, the volume of air in the sealed syringe shouldincrease as the temperature increases;the volume and the temperature should have a proportional relationship.Materials:· 10 mL Sealed syringe· Beakers· Water · Ice· Hotplate· ThermometerProcedures:The methods for thisexperiment are following:1. Placethe sealed syringe in an ice water bath 2.
Leavethe syringe in for 2 minutes3. Recordthe temperature of the ice water bath 4. Recordthe volume of air in the syringe5. Placethe syringe into a warm water bath (30 C)6.
Leavethe syringe in for 2 minutes7. Recordthe temperature of the warm water bath 8. Recordthe volume of air in the syringe9. Placethe syringe into a warm water bath (50 C)10. Leavethe syringe in for 2 minutes11.
Recordthe temperature of the warm water bath 12. Recordthe volume of air in the syringe13. Placethe syringe into a warm water bath (70 C)14.
Leavethe syringe in for 2 minutes15. Recordthe temperature of the warm water bath 16. Recordthe volume of air in the syringe17. Placethe sealed syringe in a room temperature water bath18.
Recordthe temperature of the room temperature water bath19. Recordthe volume of air in the syringeDataTable: 1st Trial (mL±0.1mL) 2nd Trial (mL±0.1mL) 3rd Trial (mL±0.1mL) 4th Trial (mL±0.1mL) 0 °C 3.0 3.0 2.
8 2.8 21 °C 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 30 °C 3.8 3.8 3.
8 3.2 50 °C 4.4 4.0 4.
4 3.8 70 °C 4.6 4.8 4.
8 4.4 Observation: When the sealed syringe was placed into the ice waterbath, the air inside the syringe gotshrunken. In another hand, when the syringe was placed into the warm water baths (21 °C, 30 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C), the air inside the syringe got expanded as thetemperature of water increased. Graph:*The trend line on thegraph goes through negative value as to compare the actual value andtheoretical value.Calculations:Analysis Since the graph of this experiment shows almost astraight line and the volume increases as the temperature goes up, the temperatureand volume have a linear relationship that Charles’ Law states. However, the x-intercept of the line isaround -100 C, which is supposed to be around -273 C, which means theexperiment has a huge error.
The percentage error of the result of thisexperiment is around 277%, so there must be some factors that caused errors. Sourcesof Error: There is a largepercent error (277%) considering the wide range of sources of error in thisexperiment. Some sources of error which couldhave been occurred in this experiment are human errors such as measuring incorrectly,limitation of equipment, differences of temperature, and sampling. In this experiment, a sealed syringe was usedto find the volume of the air.
Thesmallest division of the scale was 0.2 mL; thus, the absolute error of thesyringe is 0.1 mL, which could have been fairly a large difference. Using a syringe which has smaller scale couldimprove this experiment since it reducesthe absolute uncertainty. Also, the datamight have been affected by the thermometer used to record the temperature. When the thermometer was dipped into the waterbaths, the temperature of water couldhave been slightly cooled. To not dip athermometer repeatedly could reduce the error; however, it is required in thislab.
Another source of error is that thelab got done after two (2) days since it was stared, so there are somedifferences could have been occurred, such as the air, temperature of water andthe classroom. To be done in shorteramount of time could improve the lab. Moreover, there is a possibilitythat plunger of the syringe has released the air inside. Sampling is another source of error sinceonly 4 trials were performed in this experiment. As the data table shows, the data correctedin the experiment is not equal. Forinstance, the 3rd trial and 4th trial of 30 C warm waterbath have 0.
6 mL difference. That musthave affected the result since the medianof four trials were used to plot the graph. To study larger sample size could improve and reduce the sampling errorand make the data more reliable.Conclusion The purpose of this lab was to investigate a relationshipthat exists between the volume of gas andtemperature in a sealed syringe. The airinside the syringe was either heated up or cooled down and the volume wasrecorded in each trial.
My hypothesiswas that according to Charles’ Law, the temperature and the volume have aproportional relationship. The result ofthis experiment is that the volume of the air inside the sealed syringe changedas the temperature changed. When it waswarmed up, the air got expanded. On theother hand, as the temperature went down, the volume of air got decreased andshrunken. The graph of data shows thevolume and temperature almost have a proportional relationship as Charles’ Lawstates.
However, there is a hugepercentage error (277%) in this experiment, therefore, this lab could not provethat the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to itstemperature on the Kelvin scale when thepressure is held constant. To reduce theerror and improve this lab will be able to prove Charles’ Gas Law. Bibliography”ClassroomResources | Three Station Gas Lab.” AACT,teachchemistry.org/classroom-resources/three-station-gas-lab.OpenStax.
“Chemistry.”9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law |Chemistry,opentextbc.ca/chemistry/chapter/9-2-relating-pressure-volume-amount-and-temperature-the-ideal-gas-law/.Bloch, P., Bocknek, J.
,Clancy, C., & Amdemichael, T. (2011). Chemistry 11. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Jircitano, Alan J. GasLaws, chemistry.bd.psu.