Gas Temperature and Gas Volume

Step One: Conducting the
Investigation

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Introduction:

This
report discusses an experiment to investigate the relationship that exists
between temperature and volume of air in a sealed syringe that is either heated
or cooled with water in different temperature.  Charles’ Law,

where
V is the volume, T is temperature, and k is constant of proportionally, states
that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant pressure is directly
proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions,
the law can be written as,

and it shows that as the
temperature goes up, the volume also goes up, and vice versa.

In
this experiment, collecting enough data (at least 5 data points with 3 trials
each) is expected to properly study the relationship between gas temperature
and gas volume in constant pressure.
According to the gas law, the volume of air in the sealed syringe should
increase as the temperature increases;
the volume and the temperature should have a proportional relationship.

Materials:

·
10 mL Sealed syringe

·
Beakers

·
Water

·
Ice

·
Hotplate

·
Thermometer

Procedures:

The methods for this
experiment are following:

1.      Place
the sealed syringe in an ice water bath

2.      Leave
the syringe in for 2 minutes

3.      Record
the temperature of the ice water bath

4.      Record
the volume of air in the syringe

5.      Place
the syringe into a warm water bath (30 C)

6.      Leave
the syringe in for 2 minutes

7.      Record
the temperature of the warm water bath

8.      Record
the volume of air in the syringe

9.      Place
the syringe into a warm water bath (50 C)

10.  Leave
the syringe in for 2 minutes

11.  Record
the temperature of the warm water bath

12.  Record
the volume of air in the syringe

13.  Place
the syringe into a warm water bath (70 C)

14.  Leave
the syringe in for 2 minutes

15.  Record
the temperature of the warm water bath

16.  Record
the volume of air in the syringe

17.  Place
the sealed syringe in a room temperature water bath

18.  Record
the temperature of the room temperature water bath

19.  Record
the volume of air in the syringe

Data
Table:

1st
Trial
(mL±0.1mL)

2nd
Trial
(mL±0.1mL)

3rd
Trial
(mL±0.1mL)

4th
Trial
(mL±0.1mL)

0 °C

3.0

3.0

2.8

2.8

21 °C

3.2

3.0

3.0

3.0

30 °C

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.2

50 °C

4.4

4.0

4.4

3.8

70 °C

4.6

4.8

4.8

4.4

Observation:

When the sealed syringe was placed into the ice water
bath, the air inside the syringe got
shrunken.  In another hand, when the syringe was placed into the warm water baths (21 °C, 30 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C), the air inside the syringe got expanded as the
temperature of water increased.

Graph:

*The trend line on the
graph goes through negative value as to compare the actual value and
theoretical value.

Calculations:

Analysis

Since the graph of this experiment shows almost a
straight line and the volume increases as the temperature goes up, the temperature
and volume have a linear relationship that Charles’ Law states.  However, the x-intercept of the line is
around -100 C, which is supposed to be around -273 C, which means the
experiment has a huge error.  The percentage error of the result of this
experiment is around 277%, so there must be some factors that caused errors.

Sources
of Error:

There is a large
percent error (277%) considering the wide range of sources of error in this
experiment.  Some sources of error which could
have been occurred in this experiment are human errors such as measuring incorrectly,
limitation of equipment, differences of temperature, and sampling.  In this experiment, a sealed syringe was used
to find the volume of the air.  The
smallest division of the scale was 0.2 mL; thus, the absolute error of the
syringe is 0.1 mL, which could have been fairly a large difference.  Using a syringe which has smaller scale could
improve this experiment since it reduces
the absolute uncertainty.  Also, the data
might have been affected by the thermometer used to record the temperature.  When the thermometer was dipped into the water
baths, the temperature of water could
have been slightly cooled.  To not dip a
thermometer repeatedly could reduce the error; however, it is required in this
lab.  Another source of error is that the
lab got done after two (2) days since it was stared, so there are some
differences could have been occurred, such as the air, temperature of water and
the classroom.  To be done in shorter
amount of time could improve the lab.
Moreover, there is a possibility
that plunger of the syringe has released the air inside.  Sampling is another source of error since
only 4 trials were performed in this experiment.  As the data table shows, the data corrected
in the experiment is not equal.  For
instance, the 3rd trial and 4th trial of 30 C warm water
bath have 0.6 mL difference.  That must
have affected the result since the median
of four trials were used to plot the graph.
To study larger sample size could improve and reduce the sampling error
and make the data more reliable.

Conclusion

The purpose of this lab was to investigate a relationship
that exists between the volume of gas and
temperature in a sealed syringe.  The air
inside the syringe was either heated up or cooled down and the volume was
recorded in each trial.  My hypothesis
was that according to Charles’ Law, the temperature and the volume have a
proportional relationship.  The result of
this experiment is that the volume of the air inside the sealed syringe changed
as the temperature changed.  When it was
warmed up, the air got expanded.  On the
other hand, as the temperature went down, the volume of air got decreased and
shrunken.  The graph of data shows the
volume and temperature almost have a proportional relationship as Charles’ Law
states.  However, there is a huge
percentage error (277%) in this experiment, therefore, this lab could not prove
that the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its
temperature on the Kelvin scale when the
pressure is held constant.  To reduce the
error and improve this lab will be able to prove Charles’ Gas Law.

Bibliography

“Classroom
Resources | Three Station Gas Lab.” AACT,
teachchemistry.org/classroom-resources/three-station-gas-lab.

OpenStax. “Chemistry.”
9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law |
Chemistry,
opentextbc.ca/chemistry/chapter/9-2-relating-pressure-volume-amount-and-temperature-the-ideal-gas-law/.

Bloch, P., Bocknek, J.,
Clancy, C., & Amdemichael, T. (2011). Chemistry 11. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Jircitano, Alan J. Gas
Laws, chemistry.bd.psu.edu/jircitano/gases.html.

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