Gill,et al; (2010). In the present study we have tried tocompare the components of physical fitness components namely speed, strength,endurance, agility and flexibility among female students in rural and urbanenvironments.
The study was conducted in 100 female students (50 rural and 50urban) from Punjabi University, Patiala. The data was collected using heightand weight measurements, as well as through the test such as jumping, stepping,running, flexibility, etc. The data were analyzed and compared with the help ofstatistical procedures in which the arithmetic mean, standard deviation (SD),standard error of mean (SEM), and’t’ test were employed. This study concludedthat rural students have been superior in strength, endurance, speed, andagility. On the other hand, urban female students were heavier and superior intasks such as flexibility.Milanese, et al;(2010). Anthropometryand motor skills examined in children of 6-12 years.
The objective of thisstudy was to assess motor skills and anthropometric parameters in children aged6 to 12 years and their interrelationships. Total 221 students of the Veronauniversity (Italy) were attended the summer camp organized by the faculty ofmotor science in 2005 to 2007. One fifty two children (103 males and 49females) were treated with standard anthropometry (body mass index, waistcircumference, waist / hip ratio and the sum of five skin folds) and motorskills tests (standing jump and 30 m dash). Sixty nine students were excludedbecause they didn’t complete anthropometry measurements. Data were stratifiedby age (6-7, 8-9, 10-12 years) and sex (M / F), and the spearman correlationcoefficient was used to assess the correlation between BMI and otheranthropometric measures in each class as correlation between anthropometricparameters and physical fitness tests.
The effect of age, sex, and individualanthropometric measures on jump speed or length was assessed by ANOVA. BMIcorrelated positively with waist circumference and subcutaneous fat, and wasnegatively correlated with body density. Motor fitness was not significantlyinfluenced by BMI, while the sum of five skin folds was negatively associatedwith speed in male children 6-7 years of age and jump length in female aged 8and 12 years. Motor fitness significantly correlated with age and performancewas higher in males. In addition, motor fitness tests have been positivelycorrelated with each other, especially in females. In the 6-12 year period,motor performance improves with age and improvement is partially related tosex; this correlation is higher in male children, probably because of theirlower fat content. Subcutaneous fat is a better predictor of physical fitnessthan BMI or the circumference of waist. The results also suggested thatexplosive strength and speed are related to the age of 6 to 12 years, perhapsbecause both are power events, involving horizontal movement of the center ofmass.
Chillon, et al;(2011). Physical fitnesshas been developed in rural and urban children and adolescents in Spain.Objectives examine the differences in physical components between rural andurban Spanish children and adolescents. A sample of 2569 school children (1068)and adolescents (1501) from urban and rural areas in the Aragon region (Spain).
Physical fitness was evaluated through 7 tests: 20-meter shuttle run, fastspeed racing, sit and reach test, standing long jump, hand grip, bent arm hangand sit ups (30 sec.). The differences in physical fitness and anthropometry ofthe place of residence were examined by the one-way analysis of covariance.Rural children and adolescents have a healthier profile of their urban peers interms of cardio respiratory, upper and lower extremities muscle fitness andadiposity, while their agility and flexibility are worse. The place ofresidence must be taken into account in order to take effective measures topromote physical activity and health.
Pandey & Pandey, (2011). The study was designed to find thehealth related physical fitness among girls studying in different types ofgovernment schools of urban, semi-urban and rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, thestudent age was between 12 and 17 years. 150 subjects from each school wereselected. Total 450 subjects were selected randomly.
To compare the differenthealth related physical fitness components among girls studying in differenttypes of government school (rural, urban and semi-urban), the variance analysis(ANOVA) has been applied the level of significance .05. A significantdifference was found between the paired mean of semi-urban and rural (4.98),urban and rural (3.86) and urban and semi-urban (1.12) in relation to abdominalmuscle strength. A significant difference between urban and rural pairs (7.33),urban semi-rural (5.
13) and urban and semi-urban (2.2) in relation to itsshoulder muscle strength found. A significant difference between urban andrural pairs (1.53), rural and semi-urban (1.11) and urban and semi-urban (0.
43)in relation to the percentage of body fat found. A significant difference foundbetween paired means of urban and rural (2.25), semi urban and rural (1.32) andurban and semi-urban (0.93) in relation to its coordination ability .Significant differences between the paired means of urban and rural (285.
8),urban and semi-urban (204.00) and semi urban and rural (81.87) in relation totheir cardio respiratory endurance was found. A Significant differences betweenpaired means of urban and rural (4.12), urban and semi-urban (2.
69), andsemi-urban and rural (4.13) were reported in relation to their flexibility.Kumar& Singh, (2012).
The purpose of this study was tocompare the physical fitness of government and non-governmental school boys ofChandigarh. The AAHPER Youth Physical fitness Test (Six Test: Pull-Up, bentknee sit-ups, Shuttle Run, standing broad Jump, 50 Dash and 600 yard Run /Walk) were conducted in 4000 students (2000 urban and 2000 rural) aged between13 and 16 years of Chandigarh (UT). To compare the average differences betweenthe government test and the non-governmental school children t-test wascomputed with the help of SPSS Software. The level of significance was 0.05.Significant differences have been observed among governmental andnon-governmental school children. The finding reveals that non-governmentalstudents are physically superior to their peers.
Suliburska, et al; (2012). Theobjective of the study on the lifestyle of young people in rural and urbanareas. It seems to be differences in the lifestyle of young people in rural andurban areas. The objective of this study was to compare the eating habits andphysical activity of young adults based on body weight, sex and place ofresidence. The study included total 300 young adults from rural and 300 fromurban environment in Wielkopolska. In the study, included 50% of the girls and50% of the boys in each group were 18 years of age, selected using simplerandom sampling (SRS).
Urban area comprised 4 districts and rural areacomprised 22 villages in Wielkopolska. The author’s questionnaire was providedto evaluate nutrition and physical activity. It was found that BMI wassignificantly higher in the boys than in the girls group.
Compared to normalweight, overweight adults are meals more often, preferred meat dishes, moreoften with less stress and less physical activity. It has been found that sex(gender) has had a significant impact onthe parameters studied. Girls are meals more frequently during the day,favorite fruits and vegetables, but they had less physical activity than boys.It was found that young rural adults prefer fast food and often sweets.Compared with urban subjects, young adults living in the country consumed fewerdaily meals and were more physically active. Approximately half of the adultsstudied were not satisfied with their weight and almost 40% of subjects in bothgroups admitted to having made effective or ineffective attempts to loseweight. The lifestyle of young people in rural and urban areas is slightlydifferent; however, dietary factors predispose weight gain were comparable inboth groups. In rural areas, the most frequent nutritional deficiencies werethe preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets and few mealsduring the day.
A positive aspect of the youth lifestyle in rural areas was arelatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress onover consumption.Kolekar & Sawant, (2013). A cross-sectional study wasconducted to compare the physical growthamongst the healthy children of urban and rural area school of the Sangli district of Maharashtra, India.For the purpose of study 2300 school children (1390 urban and 910 rural) weretaken.
Anthropometric measurements like height (cm) and weight (kg) were taken.Urban school children’s height and weight has been statistically higher thanrural school children at the level of p<0.05.
This was due differences inthe nutritional and socio-economic environment in urban and rural areas. It isa comprehensive understanding of nutritional diversity, food availability,prevention and treatment of recurrent diseases, hygiene and literacy of parentsin the urban areas as compared to rural areas.Kumar, (2014). Thepurpose of the study was to compare the physical fitness variable of 15-19years basketball players of the urban and rural area of Rohtak district inrelation to its age. To complete the objective of the study, 40 basketballplayers (20 rural and 20 urban) were selected from the Rohtak. They were usedonly standing broad jump test and 50-yard test to measure selected physicalfitness variables of basketball players.
The study was delimited by the AAHPERtest battery. t-test was used to analysis the data and examined the significantdifference between rural and urban basketball players Rohtak.Dhadwal, (2015). Thepurpose of the study was compared to the body mass index and the selectedfitness variables analyzed in active and inactive students. A total of 50girls, 25 active and 25 inactive students were selected from the St. LawrenceSchool of Samana in Patiala (Punjab) in India. Demographic Profile helps us to divide the school going girl students intoactive and Inactive girl students which told us about their interest in gamesand sports and also in other activities of daily living.
They did not given any physical training before taking the body mass index andfitness test. After the selection of 50 girls who were age of 12 to 15 years tostudy in different classes i.e. 6th to 9th were given inthe selected criteria variables. At the beginning of the demographic profiledemonstration, all selected complete sets, physical fitness variables such asspeed, agility, strength (grip, leg and back strength) and body mass index wereselected.
Which were tested on active and inactive school girls? Data wereanalyzed using the t-test. The results of these BMIs and selected physicalfitness variables make an insignificant difference between active and inactivegirls at the significance level of 0.05.Mondal& Bandyopadyay,(2015). The aim of this study was tocompare the selected physical fitness components between Bangladesh and Indiangirls for 7 to 9 years. The study was conducted on 211 subjects, 107 Indiangirls from Purulia and Midnapur district in West Bengal and 104 girls fromBagerhat district in Bangladesh for the comparison of physical fitnessvariables and all of the subjects were live at village.
The subjects were bornin daily labour and peasant family. Indian girls went to school and play in thefield in afternoon daily but Bangladeshi girls were less involved in games theyhelp their parents for cultivation in fields. The variables selected for the study were strength endurance of theupper body (flex arm hang in sec), agility (shuttle run 4×10 m in sec) andcardiovascular endurance (reduced Cooper test in meter).
The t-test was used todetermine the significant difference between the different disciplines. It wasconcluded that there was a significant difference between Indian girls andBangladesh in upper body strength endurance. But significant differences werenot found in the variables of agility and cardiovascular endurance. Indiangirls have a better agility and cardiovascular endurance than Bangladesh girls,but Bangladesh girls have better upper body strength endurance than Indiangirls.Singh, (2015).
The study examined theflexibility of low back and posterior thighs from the class of bacheloreducation girls from science and arts. The study was conducted in a sample of100 students (50 science and 50 Arts) were randomly selected from collages ofeducation of Ludhiana and nearby areas. To measure the flexibility of subjects by using sit and reach test fromAAHPERD health related fitness test battery. The results of the study haveshown that the girls of Arts stream have better flexibility than the girls ofscience.Song,(2015).
The purpose of thestudy is to analyze the various factors of physical activity, dietary habitsand physical strength found in college students with normal and high body fat.This is a comparative study. In total, 78 people from 20 to 29 years oldparticipated in this study: 48 students in normal body fat and 30 students inhigh body fat groups. Participants were analyzed based on general and healthrelated characteristics, physical activities and dietary habits through aquestionnaire. They measured body fat, BMI, muscle strength, flexibility andlung capacity.
Differences in terms of their general and health relatedcharacteristics, physical activity, dietary habits and physical strengthbetween the two groups examined with X2-test and independent t-testwith the help of SPSS 21.0. Nosignificant differences were found in gender, the perceived health and interestin health between the two groups.
There was a significant difference inknowledge of body shape, intensity, type and frequency of exercise, musclestrength, flexibility and lung capacity between two groups and no significantdifferences in dietary habits. This study has shown that physical activity and strengthhave a directly related with body fat than dietary habits. Management andconstant interest of body fat are necessary, particularly with regard to bothphysical active and physical strength.Karak & Mandal, (2016). Acomparison study of physical fitness between physical education students andstudents in general (age group 17-20 years). Total 60 subjects were studied forS.
B.S.S Mahavidyalaya, Goaltore, Paschim Medinipur and Western Bengal. AAHPERYOUTH FITNESS TEST BATTERY (1976) was used to measure the physical fitness. Tocompare physical fitness between students of physical education and students ingeneral (aged 17-20 years) independent t-test was conducted at 0.
05 significantlevels. The results of this study reveal that there were significantdifferences in pull ups, sit ups, standing jump, 50 yards dash, shuttle run and600 yards run/walk for know the strength of the arm and shoulder, abdominal,leg strength, agility, speed and cardiovascular endurance respectively. Basedon the results obtained, it was noted that physical education students arestronger arm and shoulder, abdominal, leg strengths, agility, speed ??and cardiovascularendurance of general students for participation in games and sports for varioustypes of physical activity.
Yadav & Sharma, (2016). A comparative study of physicalFitness between Aarohi and students of government school boys. Before theindustrial revolution, physical fitness was the ability to carry out the day’sactivities without undue fatigue. Therefore, observing the felt requirement,consider trying to study the physical fitness between five Aarohi and fifteen governmentschools in the Mewat district. In order to examine the physical fitness of 50students of Aarohi boys and 50 boys from government school from the Mewatdistrict were randomly selected to serve as subjects.
The ‘t’ test is used tocompare and analyze the data. According to statistical analysis, there was asignificant difference in physical fitness between Aarohi and the governmentschools in the Mewat district. This clearly indicates that the average physicalcondition of Aarohi boy students was far superior to the average physicalattitudes of Haryana’s Mewat district government school students.