Global the Earth’s atmosphere. About 160000 years ago,

Global warming

Introduction
of global warming

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          The average temperature of the
atmosphere is determined by the concentration of the atmospheric gases
molecules such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. The concentration
of these gases can be changed by various factors including human activities and
lead to changes in climate and global warming. The continuous burning of fossil
fuels by human result in the rising of the concentration of carbon dioxide,  which is known as the greenhouse gases as  can allow the entry of sunlight into the
atmosphere but not exit the atmosphere, leading to a gradual warming of the
Earth’s atmosphere. About 160000 years ago, the average global temperature was
5 degree Celsius lower that now. Scientists believed that the temperature will
be increasing at the rate of 0.3% per decade due to industrialization. Within
40 years, the average temperature of the Earth would be raised by 1.5 to 5
degree Celsius with the doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration from the
industries.

Causes
of global warning

          High concentrations of greenhouse gases are
the main reason in causing global warming. Usually, they are important in the
balance of heat of atmosphere as they are able to absorb infrared radiations.
First of all, radiant energy from the sun enters the Earth’s atmosphere. Some
solar radiation is reflected back to space. The Earth absorbed most of the
radiation and warming the surface of the seas and lands. By this, infrared
radiation ( heat ) is emitted by the surface and radiates back to space.
However, much of the heat does not escape from the atmosphere but remains
trapped by the greenhouse gases, warming the atmosphere. They done this by
absorb some of the infrared energy and emit it back to the Earth’s surface ( Figure
3.0 shown in Appendices 3 ). Only little life would be survived as the Earth is
too cold without this process. However, small amount of these gases is enough
in preventing thermal radiation from radiating out of the atmosphere. In 1960,
scientists at the Mauna Loa laboratory on Hawaii’s highest volcano start to
measure the greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere. This site is
chosen as it acts as the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric conditions
representative and is considered free from local airborne contamination. The
annual lows and high of the carbon dioxide concentration is shown by the crests
and troughs of the graph. From the midline of the graph, we can conclude that
the  concentration is continuously increasing. (
Figure 3.1 shown in Appendices 3 )

          However, some scientist believed that
increased in the concentration of  will not result in global warming. As we know,
 is soluble in water and not all the  will remain in the atmosphere. is not only absorbed by
the rivers, seas and oceans but also used by green plants during the
photosynthesis process. Examples of the algal blooms in spring and the intake
of  in the atmosphere by the leaves of the plants
during daytime show the ways to eliminate  in the air. Thus, it may seem beneficial in
agricultural production but harmful to the environment.

         Ozone depletion is another cause of
global warming Gases such as chlorofluorocarbon, CFC that can easily be found
in air conditioners, refrigerator and aerosol cans depletes the ozone that
protect the living organisms from harmful high energy ultraviolet radiation.

          Besides, global warming is also
caused by deforestation. Deforestation change the patterns of the land by
converting the forest to buildings , crops and land settlement.

Examples
of climate changes due to global warming

          Scientists have found
that data from weather stations and balloons, satellite and computer programs
show that the irreversible effects are on their way. The Earth is becoming
warmer and warmer. Paleoclimatological records show that millions years ago the
global temperature is 5 degree Celsius colder than now. ( Figure 3.2 shown in
Appendices 3 ) . There will be a
cooling of the stratosphere. Global warming will cause changing in the rainfall
patterns. The polar ice caps and glaciers start to melt due to global warming. The
Glacier in the White Thunder Ridge has a
completely different view in 1941 and 2004. ( Figure 3.3 shown in Appendices 3
). This can result in the rise in the sea levels. It is possible to rise
18cm by 2030 and 58 cm by 2090. A rise in sea levels causes low-lying
areas to be flooded, alter coastlines and contaminate fresh-water supplies. One
of the examples is wet lands between Timbalier Island and Galliano LA are
disappearing because of the rising in sea levels. ( Figure 3.4 shown in
Appendices 3 ). All of these will have effects in increased tidal range and
estuarine salt- front intrusion and recession of wetlands and shorelines.       

          Global warming will
increases the frequency of drought. In 2012,almost 81% of the United States is
facing drought due to climate changes. ( Figure 3.5 shown in Appendices 3 ). The
land will become dry and infertile and this leads to a drop in crop yields. As a
result, the people will suffer from hunger. The probability of hurricanes
occurring will also increase. Besides, the high temperature will causes a great
evaporation of water. Knowing that water vapour is a greenhouse gases, further
enhanced will increases the rate of precipitation of snow at poles. This will
leads to the formation of polar ice sheets.  Global warming will leads to the change in the
wind direction and wind stress over the sea surface. This affects the
distribution of species which may leads to extinction of species in certain
regions as the changes in ocean currents and nutrient mixing zones.

Effect of global warming on human
settlement

          Millions of people from the world
who are living in low-lying coastal plains, sea-sides and islands would be
displaced by the inundation as the sea levels are continuously rising from year
to year. Families in Kiribati have no chose but to live near marginal areas,
facing the problems of the continuously rising of sea levels. ( Figure 3.6
shown in Appendices 3 ).

Effect on human health

          Changes in the
temperature will bring lots of disease to human such as respiratory diseases,
cerebrovascular and cardiovascular. The situation will be worst especially in the
elderly, the very young and the chronically. Our body thermo-regulatory system
will be overloaded by high temperature causing in frank heat-stroke.

In United States, the doubled amount on carbon dioxide concentration has
result in the death of 1150 to around 7400. From the result, most of the death
occurs in the elderly. In the case of hat fever, the levels of tropospheric
ozone are also the reason beside of the released of pollen. The changes in
climate also caused the long term effects on mental health. In 1972, 125 people
died and around 4000 people to become homeless because of the collapsing dam in
the USA. 80% of the survivors were found that they are having trauma from that
incident. All of this can changes the change in the characteristics and
behaviour of a person and lead to depression and stress throughout their life.
Almost all the children were facing development problems due to the incident.

Effect on animal behaviour and
settlement

          Rising in sea levels caused by
global warming will result in the loss of settlement for animals. We could see
that see turtles are losing their nesting beaches especially in the Caribbean
beaches. The period of hibernation varies, becoming longer or shorter and the
eggs will be laid earlier compare to previous years. The migratory journey will
be affected due to global warming. Moreover, populations will also be displaced
due to the warming of the Earth surface. In the late 1970s, polar bears are
increasingly food-stressed as the have longer fasting period
during open-water season. The rising in sea levels will also endangered species
that are living in the water like whales and dolphin. Mediterranean monk seals start to appear in Egypt, Lebanon and Israel
that they have not been found before. This could be due to the  need of raising their pups on a beach.

Effect on plants

          Due to the large changes in the
climate, some plants may get benefit from that as the rate of the activities of
microorganisms living in the soil increases based on the journal New
Phytologist while some may experience bad effect as plants are moving to cooler
regions. Increasing in the temperature and strong wind are beneficial for
plants that used wind to spread their seeds or pollens, for an example,
Taraxacum Mongolicum species. Warmer temperature will stimulate growth rate but
only at the initial. The growth rate decreases as it increases will time. As
mention earlier,  the high
temperature will causes a great evaporation of water resulting in the formation
of the large root system to obtain sufficient water. Changes in the tree
structure in the form of leaf structure, shape and size architecture of the
root system are obvious to be seen. Furthermore, due to the rising of the sea
levels coastal species like Arctic and alpine species will now have nowhere to
go and. They will be located between the living places of human and rising sea
levels. Plants
will be playing their roles as ‘sinks’ more frequently to reduce the
concentration of carbon dioxide.

How much one has to pay

Researchers
have found that in 2.4 million to 3.1 million jobs will be lost and 177 billion
dollars to 318 billion dollars of gross domestic product will be reduced in
order to reduce and stabilize one greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to 93% of
1990’s levels in USA.