Globalisation is a term that came into popular usage in the
1980’s to describe the increased movement of people, knowledge, ideas, goods
and money across national borders that has led to increased interconnectedness
among the world’s populations, economically, politically, socially and
culturally. Although globalisation is often thought of in economic terms this
process has many social and political implications as well. Many people would
associate globalisation with modernisation i.e. the transformation of traditional
societies into more western industrialised ones. At a global level,
globalisation is thought of in terms of the challenges it poses to the role of
governments in international affairs and the global economy. There are always
debates about globalisation and its positive and negative effects. While
globalisation is thought of by many as having the potential to make societies
richer through trade and to bring knowledge and information to people around
the world, there are many others who perceive globalisation as contributing to
the exploitation of the poor by the rich, and as a threat to traditional
cultures as the process of modernisation changes society.

Globalisation has many advantages and disadvantages however
in my opinion the advantages do outweigh the disadvantages. One of the many
advantages of globalisation is the increase in free trade. An increase in free
trade has opened doors for investors in developed countries to invest their
money into developing countries meaning big companies from developed countries
have the freedom to operate in developing countries. An example of this is in
the early 2000s, Japanese and European companies Kawasaki and Siemens started
producing high speed trains in China. This helped Chinese firms in gaining knowledge
about the production process and now Chinese companies such as China South
Locomotive and Rolling Stock Corp. are producing high speed trains on their
own. Having to ability to trade freely to different countries has also built
stronger trade ties and dependencies between nations which is also an advantage
of globalisation.

Because of globalisation there has been an increase in the
quality of goods and services that are available on the market, people now have
access to the best quality of goods and services throughout the world.
Companies must strive to provide better quality goods and services to the
consumer and the consumer has the liberty of choosing whichever product they
think best suits their needs. Globalisation has also decreased the price of
goods and services, as the competition in the market has increased due to rapid
globalisation, producers are having to price their products competitively in
order to remain in the market. This has become a benefit for the consumer as
the quality of products has increased however the price of the products and
services are at cheaper prices. An example is that of the car brand Ambassador
in India. It was the only car available in India along with the Fiat before the
liberalisation of the Indian Economy. These cars were inefficient and expensive.
Once the Indian economy was opened, other car companies started selling their
cars in India at cheaper prices, this was a major benefit for the consumer and
happened because of globalisation.

There has been an increase in employment opportunities
because of globalisation. The increase in globalisation means more and more
companies are setting up businesses in other countries. This in turn increases
the employment opportunities, people can get better jobs without having to move
to other countries in search of them. Today, many multifunctional companies
such as Microsoft, Google and Yahoo have their offices in the Republic of
Ireland. This has created well paid work for the people living in Ireland but
it also means that these companies which originate from America are getting
cheaper labour by working from Dublin. Because of the increase of employment
this has also helped lower the numbers on homelessness and poverty. In 2004 the
rate of homelessness in England was 140,000 however in those 14 years homelessness
has dropped to around 45,000 people. This number is still high however because
of globalisation there are more job opportunities within the UK and Ireland
because bigger named companies are coming from around the world too here, and
with the drop-in figures over the years it could be argued that these numbers
will continue to drop because of companies becoming more global which will
create more jobs.

Education has also been affected by globalisation. With
globalisation increasing it has become easier for people to move across borders
to different parts of the world to acquire a better education. This has
resulted in an integration of cultures, people from underdeveloped and
developing countries often move to developed countries to get a better
education. More and more students from parts of the world such as India, China
and other parts of Asia often move to more developed countries like the UK and
USA to pursue higher education. This is just another example of how
globalisation has become an advantage to our lives, because it is now easier to
travel to a different country for education this has also made countries such
as the UK more culturally aware of other traditions such as the Chinese New
Year. If it wasn’t for globalisation countries such as the UK and USA would not
have things such as cuisines from around the world and also products such as
clothes and electricals would be more expensive as the cost of production would
go up if globalisation was non-existent.

Although there are many advantages to globalisation there
are also some disadvantages. One of the disadvantages of globalisation is the
over standardisation of products through global branding, this is a common
criticism of globalisation. Different markets have different preferences this
means selling one uniformed product lacks uniqueness, this allows competition
to gain market share through tailoring their products to meet the need of a
specific market. For example, the majority of the worlds computers use
Microsoft Windows operating system. Standardising of computer operating systems
and platforms create considerable benefits however it can be argued that this
could leads to a lack of diversity as well as presenting barriers to entry for small,
local producers.  One of the most
significant criticisms of globalisation is the increased risk associated with
the interdependence of economies. As countries are increasingly dependent of
each other, a negative economic shock in one country can quickly spread to
other countries. An example of this would be a downturn in car sales in the UK
affects the rest of Europe as most cars bought in the UK are imported from the
EU. Over specialisation, such as being over reliant on producing a limited
range of goods for the global market, is a further risk associated with
globalisation. A sudden downturn in the world demand for one of these products
can plunge an economy into a recession and many developing countries suffer by
over-specialising in a limited range of products such as agriculture and

“It has been said that
arguing against globalisation is like arguing against the laws of gravity” –
Kofi Annan.

To conclude, I would argue that the advantages of
globalisation do outweigh the disadvantages, as said by Kofi Annan, that
globalisation is like arguing against the laws of gravity, globalisation is a
process that cannot be stopped however it can still be improved. Globalisation
has help to improve the world by being able to increase the quality of products
and services, decrease the price of these products and services and having the
ability to trade freely from country to country. There are some disadvantages
to globalisation which I have mentioned above however I feel the world is
benefiting more from the advantages and that the disadvantages are just a small
price to pay for globalisation has improved the world and the way we live.




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Gill, S. (1995). Globalisation, Market
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Johan. B, (2009). Introduction
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Jan. 2018.

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