Goia show little dependence of Etot (WWR) on

Goia et al (2013) developed a process by which the
Integrated thermal-daylighting simulations on a low energy building were
performed. The aim of this work was to find the Optimal WWR of the facade that
minimizes the total energy demand in a temperate oceanic climate. The results
show that, regardless of the orientations and of the facade area of the
building, the optimal configuration is achieved when the transparent percentage
is between 35% and 45% of the total facade module area. In this range,
daylighting conditions are also satisfactory and this WWR can therefore be
considered a good starting point in preliminary design phase. The analyses show
little dependence of Etot (WWR) on the building geometry and the
HVAC efficiency.

Lim et al (2012) presented a study of daylighting
performance for an existing office building which demonstrates that simple
modification of the external shading device and glazing type could provide
significant improvement in the indoor daylight quantity

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and quality. This paper focuses only on the
daylighting performance for visual comfort and the author states that further
research is needed on the thermal performance of the proposed modification of
building façade as tropical daylighting is always associated with intensive
solar heat gain.

As architectural design influences
the energy demand of a building for heating, cooling and lighting, so optimum
value for each of the considered parameters should be based on these three
cases. If a building optimization is performed just by taking one of the three
cases, the result would be likely concluded the increase in two other cases. There is therefore the
need to use some form of
automatic self-steering optimization algorithm that will
explore potentially good solutions (Caldas and Norford 2002). In
this work, we have used octopus, a plug-in developed for grasshopper, which can
be used to explore large search spaces and objective functions with multiple
local optima.

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the
optimization of a facade requires the contemporary evaluation of EH, EC, and
EL, and that integrated thermal and daylighting simulations are essential.