Heart failure (HF) is an alarm leading public health concern around 23 million individuals around the world. Moreover, the hazard of developing HF is one out of five. Patients with HF are at high risk of sudden death. 1. By 2030 projections indicate that the prevalence of HF will increase by 25% from 2013 estimates in the US 2. In addition, the evaluated expenses of direct and indirect medical for cardiovascular disease CVD will be expanded by 61%, Moreover, the real medical expenses of coronary artery disease CAD and Heart Failure are anticipated to increment by ? 200% throughout the following 20 years 2-13.
As announced by the Media and Health awareness Information Centre at the Ministry of Health (MOH), almost 23 million individuals will die from CVDs mostly from heart disease and stroke by 2030 2. According to the WHO and the Ministry of Health (MOH) Statistical Yearbook, CVDs are the cause of 42 % of the Kingdom’s non-communicable disease deaths in 20133-20. HF has been presented to be associated with the increased mortality rate in the Middle East 4. Around one-third of mortality in HF is because of sudden cardiac death. HF is a serious illness, where the heart muscle is powerless to pump enough blood through to meet the body’s need for blood and oxygen, 5. Heart failure might be due to the failure of both right or left ventricles. Common signs and symptoms related to heart failures such as shortness of breath, fatigue, cough, and swelling and in some cases more extreme.
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Several comorbidities play an important role, particularly hypertension and diabetes mellitus 6. Treatment of heart failure includes either medical or surgical or device driven interventions. medical treatment, surgical include while clinicians might use devices like implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRTD) have been found to be a major help in treating congestive heart failure7. Patients experiencing repeated arrhythmias can be managed by medical devices, for example, a pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and (CRT-P) can help by consistently checking the heart’s electrical system and providing programmed correction when an arrhythmia begins to happen. 5. Furthermore, most arrhythmias are harmless, yet some can be serious or even life-threatening. ICD is a therapeutic device helpful for individuals with recurrent arrhythmias, function by continuously monitoring the hearts electrical system and provide automatic remedy 5.
An ICD is a battery-powered device positioned under the skin that keeps track of your heart rate. Two thin wires connect the ICD to at least one of the chambers in your heart. The heart sends electric signals to the ICD. The ICD can deliver an electric pulse or shock to help restore a normal heartbeat to your heart if it is beating unsystematically and much too quickly. Cardiac defibrillation is an approach to restore an abnormally fast or unsystematic heartbeat to regular with an electric shock. AHA 5.
Newer-generation ICDs may have a double role which comprises of the ability to function as a pacemaker. The pacemaker feature would stimulate the heart to beat if the heart rate is recognized to be too slow 5. Research has proved that ICDs can enhance the quality of life and expand life. You may live more confidently with an ICD by understanding more about the conditions that succeeded to implantation. (ICDs) decrease sudden cardiac death more recently randomized trials have confirmed that ICDs reduce all-cause mortality rates. 8CRTD is a life-saving device for individuals which life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias by delivers synchronized stimulation shock to tree chambers of the heart, empowering the heart to pump blood more efficiently and increase blood flow 7. Furthermore, Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a powerful treatment for heart failure (HF).
The procedure involves embedding a half-dollar sized pacemaker, generally just beneath the collarbone. Three wires (leads) connected to the device monitor the heart rate to detect heart rate irregularities and release minor pulses of electricity to correct them. In effect, it is “resynchronizing” the heart 9. Since CRT enhances the heart’s effectiveness and increases blood flow, patients have stated alleviations of some heart failure symptoms – such as shortness of breath 9.Several recent studies have given evidence that CRTD has contributed to decreasing hospitalization and mortality and enhance the quality of life. Despite some randomized studies reported that worsening of QOL in sensation with multiple shocks 8-10. In addition, usual activities are affected and become harder to accomplish.
Cardiologist utilized classification framework for heart failure patients (the New York Heart Association (NYHA) based on the physical activity limitation 5-11. Patients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, NYHA class II to III HF, and LVEF ? 35% have a significant survival advantage from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for the essential prevention of SCD 11-18. Assessment of functional capacity is important to investigate the impact of the disease on a patient’s life, to decide the level of constraint imposed by CVD, and also by being a factor in diagnosis, prognosis and a solid predictor of mortality 12. Questionnaires are an inexpensive, straightforward and safe tool to assess the functional or clinical status that might be utilized before the activity test to decide a patient’s ability to perform suitable exertion.
The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) is a questionnaire, initially settled in English to evaluate the functional capacity. DASI has been utilized for the most for patients with cardiovascular illnesses, for instance, coronary artery disease, heart failure, myocardial ischemia and infarction. In clinical practice, DASI can work to quantify the impacts of medical treatments and cardiac rehabilitation and to support clinical decisions. In controlled clinical trials, DASI can serve to evaluate interventions and as a component of the assessment of the treatment cost/benefit 8-13. Quality of life is a most significant factor in clinician decision and can be classified into physical and mental health valuation 14-15-16. Exposure to multiple shocks, being at risk of cardiac arrest likewise, getting an ICD may cause new emotions or depression 10. Patients may experience feeling like anxiety or depression especially in the primary months or year after implantation, expressing your worries about the ICD/CRTD and your responses to it, you might avoid or alleviate potential anxiety or depression 15. Your mental and emotional well-being are essential to your physical prosperity 15-21.
Several previous types of research have investigated the impact of CRTD on patient quality of life. However, results of this research are not conclusive with some studies showing improvement and others not finding so 7. In addition, no researchers have been conducted about that topic in Middle East countries including Saudi Arabic. Such research is needed to inform clinicians about the level of life quality expected for those who will use this device and will help doctors and patients to make an informed decision accordingly. Living with an embedded cardioverter-defibrillator increases survival, yet the impacts of the device on health status, quality of life, and psychological state over time are not addressed yet in the Saudi population.