1.Briefly explain the history of Malacca.The history of the city Of Malacca begins with the Hindu prince Parameswara.
Malacca gained control over the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and the key shipping route through the strait of Malacca during the middle and in the late 1400s??™. This city is located strategically for trade and became the most influential port in Southeast Asia for 50 years. Malacca became a Muslim kingdom in the mid 1400s??™ as many traders brought in the Islamic religion and Malacca rulers were made known as ???Sultan???. Islam spread throughout the Malay peninsula and Southeast Asia as Malacca became a Muslim kingdom.
The Europeans were attracted to Malacca??™s prosperity as it controls the valuable price trade. In 1511, the Portuguese conquered the commercial kingdom of Malacca but were unsuccessful conquering the Malay Peninsula. Thus, there it began a colonial legacy into the 20th century.2. What are the two (2) lessons learnt from the much opposed Malayan Union There are many lessons that can be derived from the much opposed Malayan Union. One of the lessons would be the willingness to fight for our own rights. As in the event of establishment of the Malayan Union, we can see that the Malays were represented by 41 Malay associations and organisations which was then formed the UMNO which had join forces to go against the Malayan Union which was then under the consultation of Sir Edward Gent as the Governor of the Malayan Union called under the abolishment of the Malayan Union. From these series of events it proves that it is essential to have a will to retain what is rightfully belong to us.
The other valuable lesson is that the person who acts as the symbol of power and sovereignty of a country or in this case the Malay Rulers should have protected their own country for the sake of their citizens by not easily bowing down to any threats. For example, Harold Mc Michael came to ask for the signature of the Rulers on the agreement of approving the establishment of the Malayan Union or they all will be forced give up their throne, the Rulers should have discussed or isolated the threats instead of just agreeing with Sir Harold Mc Michael??™s proposition. Therefore, it is clear that the head of the country should have played their parts in protecting a country??™s sovereignty. 3.Discuss on the three political units that Malaya was divided into in 1914. The 1st political unit is the Strait Settlements in 1826. It consisted of Malacca, Singapore and the island of Penang. Governor General in the Calcutta was controlling the Straits Settlements.
The 2nd political unit is the Federated Malay States. In November 1873, Sir Andrew Clarke, the new Governor of the Straits Settlements arrived and it took less than a year to conquer the States of Perak, Selangor and Sungai Ujong which was under the British protection. Both signed treaties which meant they have agreed that British Resident for the matters that concerning Malay religion and custom. In 1888, British protection reached Pahang. The British set its support from the local people and set up an efficient form of government. Frank Swettenham suggested that it will be a great propress if the other four states which is Perk, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang were to join together in a federation.
In 1896, the Malay Rulers accepted the idea and the four Malay states became the Federal Malay States. Kuala Lumpur was selected to be the capital of the Federal Malay States. The 3rd political unit is the Unfederated Malay States. In 1906, there was a great demand for the rubbers to make into tyres for the factories all over the world especially in the USA as the motor industry has just been invented. In 1909, treaty was signed with Siam and four states which is Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis came under British protection which formed the Unfederated Malay States. In order to run the country effectively, British Advisors were sent to these states.
4.The independence of the Federation of Malaya was officially proclaimed on thee 31 August 1957. Discuss the process of independence. The failure of the Malayan Union in 1948 made the British to commit themselves to prepare the way for the Federation??™s independence. Due to the terrible incident happen such as the Emergency and the formation of UMNO, a strong nationalist movement forced the British to introduce an election in 1951 at a local level. That was the first elections that happened during that time.
The problem that occurred at that time was to get full cooperation among the main ethnic that is the Malays, Chinese and the Indians. An initiative plan was to form an alliance between UMNO, MCA and MIC. The first federal election was in 1955.
The UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance, which was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, won 51 out of 52 seats contested. He was then appointed as the Federation of Malaya??™s first Chief Minister. Tunku Abdul Rahman then went to London with the other states??™ representative. The Alliance was a successful in pressuring the British to relinquish their sovereignty and then Federation of Malaya achieved its independence on the 31 August 1957.5.State the features of Malayan Union as proposed by the British.
The Malayan Union consisted of nine Malay states, Penang Island and Malacca. The British Governor was the chief administrator, with its centre in Kuala Lumpur. The Governor was assisted by an Executive Council which was a Legislative Council.
The Malay Rulers were only given the authority to advise the Governor and they were limited to issues pertaining to Islam and as head of Malay Council of Advisors. The State Council was retained for purposes of managing the local government, but was still subjected to control by the central government. Singapore was not included in the Malayan Union as it still remained as British colonial territory under the rule of a British Governor General who had higher authority than the Governor of Malayan Union. Citizenship was based on the principle of jus soli and it can be obtained through two methods which were (a) the foreigner was 18 and above, and had resided in Malaya for 10 out of a period of 15 years before 15 February 1942 or (b) a person who was born in Malaya after the formation of Malayan Union. All citizens regardless race or origin has equal rights. This includes the entry into government service and the right to vote in the general elections.6.
State the factors which contributed to the formation of Malaysia. The formation of Malaysia was achieved after the independence through through the unification of political parties like UMNO, MCA and MIC. Singapore needed to join Malaysia as it??™s government security was losing grip to its opposition (ex PAP) which was spreading the message of communism, thus endangering the Federation.
Brunei too, joined Malaysia as the strategy to fight for communism as its cost is too much for British??™s investment. The formation of Malaysia was encouraged as Singapore had more Chinese and the joining of Sabah and Sarawak states which have more indigenous race would be able to retain the political supremacy of the Bumis. The formation of Malaysia was due to the development factor as well. It was more convenient to control the development of the country under one central government and this, creates a better regional understanding. The formation of Malaysia will form a beneficial economic cooperation as Singapore has its international trade, Brunei has oil supply and Malaysia has mineral and agriculture development.7.Compare the Malayan Union with the Federation of Malaya 1948.
Ciri Utama Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1.Konsep Raja Berpelembagaan diperkenalkan2.Majlis raja raja melayu ditubuhkan bagi menggantikan majlis melayu3.Perlindungan istimewadiberikan kepada orang melayudandiletakkan di bawah kuasa Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British 4.Syarat kerakyatan diperketatkan 5.Sebuah persekutuan dibentuk dengan gabungan 11 buah negeri ( semua negeri melayu kecuali singapura ) 6.Pesuruhjaya Tinggi Britishmenjadi Ketua Persekutuan . Beliau dibantuo leh Majlis Mesyuarat Eksekutifdan Majlis Mesyuarat Perundangan Persekutuan 8.
In brief, explain two (2) impacts of British colonialism in Malaysia. The first impact of British colonialism in Malaysia is the formation of Malayan Union. The British announced a bold decision to end the indirect rule in the Malay states by uniting all the states into a Malayan Union under a Governor with executive powers. The Malayan Union came into being and Sir Edward Gent was installed as the Governor of the Malayan Union in Kuala Lumpur on the 1st April 1946.
The second impact of British colonialism in Malaysia is the formation of Federation of Malaya. The Federation Of Malaya was established in place of the Malayan Union after negotiations with the Malay rulers, the UMNO and the other parties concerned. This new federation consisted of all nine Malay states of the Peninsula, along with Malacca and Penang Island.
The Federation was under the administration of federal government in Kuala Lumpur headed by a British High Commissioner.