Human Resource DevelopmentMandy HopeBUS 303, Human Resources ManagementProf. Gwendolyn McCants-AllenNovember 6, 2011With today??™s ever changing demands, an effective organization must focus on ways to excel in economic competition to survive. Human Resource Development (HRD) plays a crucial role in this survival and the life span of a company. In this paper I will discuss what HRD is, how essential it is to a business and ways a company can practice it successfully.
Human Resources are the people who work within an organization to achieve its goals. They are an organizations most prized asset and can take a business far, if managed effectively. When an organization is really concerned about people, its total philosophy, culture, and orientation will reflect this belief (Ivancevich, 2010).The history of human resource can be traced through the centuries, starting in early England where labor workers organized themselves into guilds. Further development arrived with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. Working conditions, social patterns, and the division of labor significantly changed (Ivancevich, 2010). In the 19th century, scientific management and industrial psychology were two approaches that came about during the era of the wars. Scientific management dealt with the inefficiencies in labor and management through work methods, time and motion study, and specialization (Ivancevich, 2010).
Industrial psychology worked towards increasing the ability of workers to perform effectively (Ivancevich, 2010). Another early contributor is the human relations movement of the mid-1960s. It became a contributor to the field of organizational behavior, the importance of social interaction pertaining to work output (Ivancevich, 2010). Today we place much more importance on the value of human resources. We know it is difficult for an organization to thrive without developing positive management of these resources.Human resource management (HRM) is the function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of people to achieve organizational and individual goals (Ivancevich, 2010).
It is the effective management of people at work. It examines what can be done to help the organizations employees become more productive and satisfied. In most organizations, effectiveness is measured by the balance of such characteristics as reaching goals, employing the skills and abilities of employees efficiently, and ensuring the influx and retention of well-trained and motivated employees (Ivancevich, 2010).
HRM should respond to changes in the work environment, such as attitude, configuration and education. Considering that people can limit or increase the strengths and flaws of an organization, this response is crucial.The majority of organizations resources are evaluated in terms of dollars (Ivancevich, 2010).
Top management has difficulty considering people in this category, but to make effective HRM decisions management must regard the development of human resources as an essential requirement. Training and development is vital to maintaining that competitive advantage and should be viewed as an investment in human capital rather than an unnecessary expense. They must place a dollar value on the human assets of their organization (Ivancevich, 2010). HRD can take a variety of forms and address many issues.
In some cases, training is accomplished to address particular performance issues or to train workers to keep up with changes. For example, an organization may determine a need to provide technical training to employees before executing a new software system to make certain all workers maintain the skill level required. Training may also address issues on workplace safety and sexual harassment. Working for the US government, I can attest to the amount of training required to keep a large organization up-to-date on the latest policies and competitive skill level. Effective HRD ensures the constant development and growth of both the individual and organization (Ivancevich, 2010).A successful HRD program prepares the individual to carry out a higher level of work, “organized learning over a given period of time, to provide the possibility of performance change” (Nadler 1984). It is more than passing on information to employees, its guiding and supporting them to transform the information into knowledge and apply it to bettering themselves and the organization as a whole.
Development is the structure that focuses on the organization??™s capabilities in training, improving the employee through education to fulfill its long term requirements, and the employee??™s career goals. Ongoing development is generally used to develop leadership, management or other skills required for employees to move into positions of authority (Webster, 2011). Employees want to continue to learn and grow in their career, it is a motivator and retention tool. Training and development opportunities may take the form of on-the-job training, workshops and seminars in the workplace, or may occur outside of the workplace (Webster, 2011). My organization has an excellent program designed to advance the employee in their job as well as reaching the goal of many, to obtain a degree. This program is called Government Tuition Assistance. It will pay up to $250 per semester hour for a job related course. I am currently utilizing this benefit to earn my Bachelor??™s in Organizational Management.
I will be a greater asset to my organization once I complete my degree and will have the opportunity to advance in my career.To start a new employee on a path compatible with the organizational goal and continue with developing their future performance, the organization must provide a strong employee orientation and continuous training throughout their employment (Ivancevich, 2010). Orientation introduces new employees to the organization while helping to smooth over the difficulty of starting a new job. The US government (Civil Service) has a very informative and pleasant employee orientation. The process of completing required documentation and learning important facts is provided step-by-step. From there you receive a day long tour of the AF Base to acclimate yourself to all it has to offer. Each office within the organization also has its own orientation specific to your job duties.Training is important for new and present employees to improve current or future performance (Ivancevich, 2010).
To display the meaning and comprehensiveness of training, a needs assessment will determine if and what type of training is needed (Ivancevich, 2010). Methods used to conduct a needs assessment are interviews, surveys, reviews of records, observation, and discussions with management and subject matter experts involving organizational, person, and task analysis (Ivancevich, 2010). Organizational analysis involves examining a firm??™s mission, resources, and goals to determine if training can be used to improve the firm??™s success, growth, and strategy. Person analysis involves the determination of who needs training and their readiness for training. Task analysis involves the identification of the tasks, knowledge, skill, and behaviors that should be included in a training program (Ivancevich, 2010). This will ultimately provide a profile of what type of training is needed, who should be trained, when training should be conducted, and whether training is the preferred approach (Ivancevich, 2010). Training and development can be optimized two ways: internally and externally.
Most employees appreciate the opportunity to train without leaving the workplace. Examples, terminology, and opportunities reflect the culture, environment, and needs of your workplace (Webster, 2011). Some options include coworker training in an area of their expertise, provide training during a brown bag lunch format, purchase business books for employees, or offer commonly needed training on the computer (Webster, 2011). . My organization continuously offers training per the internet. It is also how we receive our annual policy update requirements.
External training not only enhances knowledge, but also broadens experience through diverse people and ideas (Webster, 2011). Some examples include attending external seminars, conferences, or training events, employer paid online classes, paying for membership in external professional associations to attend meetings and regularly update coworkers, and providing flexible schedules to attend job related college courses (Webster, 2011). Developing this positive factor for your organization ensures optimization of motivation and retention. When an organization understands the importance of career development, it can offer these numerous opportunities to employees (Ivancevich, 2010). My organization provides options in all examples listed. The US government is an organization that focuses on progression and retention.Another important element of training is management development. New technologies are developed, competitors enter and leave markets, inflation increases, and productivity fluctuates, affecting management constantly (Ivancevich, 2010).
This development requires systematic diagnosis, development of a program, and the mobilization of resources. To be successful, top-management must be committed (Ivancevich, 2010). Team building is a development process that helps organizational members to work more efficiently and effectively in groups. It is designed to enhance individual team members??™ problem-solving skills, communication, and sensitivity to others (Ivancevich, 2010).
Any organization depends on the cooperation of a number of people if it is to be successful. Consequently, teams of people have to work on a temporary or permanent basis in harmony (Ivancevich, 2010). Task forces, committees, project teams, and interdepartmental groups are the kinds of teams that are frequently brought together.
When team building is successful, participation is encouraged and sustained. There also can be improved communication and problem solving within teams (Ivancevich, 2010). The government highly promotes team building. Programs are encouraged at base level and organizational level.
Once a month my office participates in some form of organized team building, even if it??™s just going to lunch as an office.The development of a life-long involved learner is a helpful factor for your organization no matter how long the employee chooses to stay in the organization. Managers and employees should be involved with their own career development. Yet individual employees often lack the ability and the information needed to develop their own career plans in ways that can work to their benefit and to the benefit of the organization (Ivancevich, 2010). An adequate matching of individual needs, abilities, preferences, motivation, and organizational opportunities will not just happen. Individuals and organizations in areas such as HRD must take responsibility for things they can control. Employees must have a clear picture of the opportunities available now and anticipated in the future. Organizations should not guess at or assume some set of career needs.
Likewise, employees should not have to guess how career development occurs in the organization (Ivancevich, 2010). Our HR department offers opportunities to openly discuss your career plan and steps to achieve it. In most circumstances the right job has to be available to achieve your next step, but the fact that progression is almost guaranteed if you strive for it is awesome in this economy. In simple terms, an organizations human resource development should maximize return on their investment in the organizations human assets and minimize financial risk.
Human Resources seeks to achieve this by aligning the supply of skilled and qualified individuals and the capabilities of the current workforce, with the organizations ongoing and future business plans and requirements to maximize return on investment and secure future survival and success (Webster, 2011). In ensuring such objectives are achieved, the human resource function purpose is to implement the organization??™s human resource requirements effectively but also realistically, taking account of legal, ethical and is practical in a manner that retains the support and respect of the workforce (Webster, 2011).Human resource development is about investing in your workforce to build a strong and committed team. It is essential to this standard, in building a successful leadership team that amplifies Human Resource Management. I feel this course has prepared me to move forward with the awareness of proper human resource management and development.
I have learned skills that I can apply to my everyday work environment and my personal success.ReferencesIvancevich, J. M. (2010). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill IrwinNadler L Ed. (1984).
The Handbook of Human Resources Development. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Webster, Amanda. (2011). Human Resources Training & Development. Retrieved from www.