I started the research of this paper with intention to
develop it in certain direction, though after finding more and more information
it started developing in completely unexpected direction that changed my
personal view of today’s geopolitics.
The paper reviews the relations between France and its
ex African colonies after the decolonization, and the continuation of these
politics till the present.
It starts with short introduction of the colonization
of French Africa, focuses on French – African relations after the
decolonization, when Colonial Pact was established that lasts till today. Afterwards,
it analyzes shortly how the aid programs are helping, or not, the development
of Africa, and in which way Macron is continuing the politic regarding the
Starting from one point with certain expectations, and
arriving to completely another, showed me the necessity that more research on
the topic should be done, and while making the research, I had the impression
that certain facts, have been avoided to be publicly discussed.
I strongly recommend one to get informed more on the
mentioned topic as it explains the background of a lot of issues happening
today on the world scene.
attracted to Africa by different economical, political and social reasons, and
also to use it for showing their power out of Europe. The colonization of
Africa took place in 19th century, when seven European powers,
France, Britain, Portugal, Belgium, Spain, Italy and Germany occupied the
continent. There was the risk that this race can provoke wars, therefore was
settled agreement: the Berlin agreement in 18851
for respecting each other spheres of influence, without even consulting people
of Africa and taking care for their will.
The African societies
tried to organize themselves military and/or diplomatic resistance, though
either it failed immediately or lasted for very short time. So colonials
systems have been settled and have been established control over the colonized
The French way of
colonizing was trough policy of assimilation. They tried to bring the local
people on same level as the French, with spreading the French language, as
language of administration and justice, and culture so eventually they could
Algeria, Morocco and
Tunisia were the countries from North Africa that belonged to France, and French Madagascar, Comoros, Scattered
islands in the Indian Ocean, French Somaliland (now Djibouti), Isle de France (1715-1810) (now Mauritius) have been French colonies as
well, that made part of French East Africa.
French Equatorial and
French West Africa have been organized as federations, consisting of French
colonies. French Equatorial Africa was
federation that at the beginning consisted of four French colonies from Central
Africa: Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubangi-Shari (currently Central African
Republic) and Chad. Later, they
became five, with French Cameroon being added to the federation.
French West Africa included 8
French African colonies: Ivory Coast, Niger, Mauritania, Senegal, Dahomey (now Benin), French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea and Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).3
1 More on
the topic: Craven, M. “Between law and history: the Berlin Conference of
1884-1885 and the logic of free trade”, 10 March, 2015
2 The Colonization
of Africa – Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College
3 Birmingham, David (1995), The
Decolonization of Africa