I. INTRODUCTION1.1 GeneralBackgroundLanguageis one of the tools that humans use to convey ideas, ideas, and thoughts intooral and written forms. In other words, language is a tool in communicatingwith others. Language usage reflects one’s character to others. This is becausein the language, each person has the freedom to use the choice of words ordiction that contains certain meanings so that the purpose of the use oflanguage is conveyed to others.
Languageas a system has potential creativity (Traugot and Prat, 1980 in Sudjiman, p. 11)(Sudjiman, 1993, p. 11). Since there are somany potential creativities that exists in the language, thus the ability of aperson to exploit its potential will be better if he/she mastering thelanguage. Inline with the above statement, it is not surprising that literary works bornfrom famous writers sometimes become more difficult to be interpreted. This isdue to the many features of language that cannot be easily understood by thereader or listener.
Onthe other hand, the analysis of language in literary works is very interestingto be done. It is because there are many uniqueness and creativity thatappears, for instance in a song lyric. Music as a product of culture has becomea part of human life.
Musicthat flourished in the community is very diverse, including Rock, R & B(Rhtym and blues), Pop, Jazz, Soul, Punk, Hip Hop, Reagee, and many other typesof music. One of the highlights is Hip Hop music. Hip Hop music is an art ofurban blacks in which the lyrics are likened to the combined sound of previouslyrecorded songs (Pihel, 1996, p. 249). InIndonesia, Hip Hop music is very popular especially in recent times. It isbecause there is an emergence of Javanese Hip Hop in which hip hop as a westernmusic is modified with Javanese lyric.
Some hip hop musician such as, Jogja HipHop Foundation, Rotra, Jahanam and NDX A.K.A. Familia gain their popularity bysinging Javanese hip hop. In my opinion, they become famous because their lyricis acceptable by the society since most of them are come from Central Java andSpecial Region of Yogyakarta which have Javanese speakers’ majority. Therefore,I am interested to analyze the power of Javanese hip hop in maintainingJavanese language and identity. This paper will explore whether Javanese hiphop plays significant role in maintaining Javanese language in this modern era.By knowing the language style in Javanese hip hop song, the Javanese perceptiontowards Javanese hip hop and the contribution of Javanese hip hop in shapingyoung Javanese identity, these will answer the role of Javanese hip hop song inmaintaining Javanese language.
1.2 PreviousStudyDevita Rina Prabowo (2014) through her researchentitled “Analysis of Language Styles within Javanese Hip Hop Song’s Lyric”observe that there are several rhetoric language style which are used to formbeautiful rhyme and to exaggerate social critic. In addition, there are alsosome figure of speech language style. Dror Cohen (2008) in his final project entitled “TheRole of Rap/Hip Hop Music in the Meaning and Maintenance of Identity in SouthAfrican Youth” found that the nature of Hip Hop culture in South Africa appearsto provide youth with the meand to remix past and present, old and new, globaland local, self and other.
It emphasizes on self-expression, individuation andcritical social awareness with many of the traditional psychologicaldevelopmental theories of youth identity. However,it is necessary to scrutinize further is there any significant role of hip hopsong to maintaining local language after being modified through local language.Both researches have not found it yet. 1.3 ResearchProblemBasedon the background above, the problems that come up to this study are formulatedas follows :1.
Whatlanguage styles are used in Javanese hip hop?2. Whatis the perception of Javanese towards Javanese hip hop by age?3. Whatcontribution does Javanese hip hop in shaping young Javanese young identity? II. THEORETICALFRAMEWORK2.1 HipHop HipHop is one of the musical genres that originated from City of Bronx in New Yorkand continues to grow rapidly throughout the world.
Hip Hop music is onlyfilled with music from Disk Jockey by making variations of disc rounds toproduce unique sounds. Rapping becomes the main element in filling the vocalsof the sounds, while for the choreography of the music is then filled a danceknown as breakdance.Oneelement of hip hop is mc-ing orbetter known as rapping. People whodo rapping called rapper.
The rapperis someone who sings the lyrics quickly and its contents about confusion,referring to violence and sexuality (Ortiz, 2002, p. 232). The lyrics are filledwith contradictive tone that give a new spirit in creating the creativity forteenagers.
HipHop originating from western culture can be modified with local culture in thiscase Javanese culture in the form of Javanese hip hop. Javanese hip hop is ahip hop music that uses Javanese in its lyrics. This makes hip hop musiccharacterized by Javanese culture. Since hip hop is a medium for young peopleto develop their creativity, so most Javanese hip hop fans and hip hopmusicians are young people in this case teenagers with Javanese as their firstlanguage. Dangdut-hiphopmusic is one of alternative in viewing the emergence of Javanese hip hop, becauseit is a new adaptation of musical genre, even become one of the first in theworld.
One of the actors is the group named NDX A.K.A Familia, a hip hop groupof originated from Bantul, Yogyakarta. The music they play seems very prevalentin the ears of the Indonesian people with simple lyrics (Putradarma, 2017, p. 6). Most of the lyricsare about the conflict and confusion of young people toward love.
But if weexamine further we will actually find meaningful lyrics in a hiphop-style withrap popped in it. Therefore, they claim their group as hiphop-dangdut genre.2.2 LanguageStyle (Stylistic) Stylisticas a science is frequently used to analyze the language used in literary work. Broadlyspeaking, stylists can be seen as the interpretation of literary works usinglinguistic approaches.
This may seem a bit strange because many people assumethat literature and linguistics are two completely different things. However,in reality both cannot be separated from the language. Therefore, stylisticanalysis in a literary work is something that can be understood and done by theresearchers of literary works. Thestylistic method emphasizes to the analysis of language style in interpretingthe literary works, so that the results of the interpretation are objective.Stylistic plays a role in showing the function of language in a text.
Leech(1981) explains that stylistic have a purpose to explain the relationshipbetween language and artistic function (p. 13). Furthermore, Leech asserts thatstylistic is not easy to understand simply, so that the interpretation ofliterary texts also depends on the creativity of its readers. Inrelation to the interpretation of literary works, stylistics often clash withliterary criticism because the method of literary criticism is consideredcapable of assessing the quality of a literary work (Thornborrow & Wareing, 1998, p. 5). Assessment inliterary criticism is considered by stylisticians as a very subjective methodbecause it is based on personal judgement of the literary works. Stylistic,therefore, intend to provide more objective assessments in assessing orunderstanding the literary work.
It is also called a more intuitive and lesspersonal method of analysis. The following are some language style devices taken fromThomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson (2002) in his book “Sound and Sense, AnIntroduction to Poetry” (Arp & Johnson, 2002, pp. 70-72) .a. Simileb.
Metaphorc. Synecdoched. Metonymye. Personificationf. Hyperbole g. Symbolh. Allegoryi.
Motifj. Rhymek. Alliterationl. Assonancem. Consonancen. RhythmThe use of the figurative languages mentioned above,according to Arp and Johnson (ibid, p. 75-76) is an effective medium to revealthe meaning. The analysis of the song lyric cannot be separated from themeaning of the words contained in the lyrics of the song.
It is because theformation of the song meaning as a whole originated from the interconnectedmeaning in the lyric. Song lyrics are part of the poem. Theaddition of musical elements is the only thing distinguish the song lyric withthe poem. According to Arp and Johnson, poetry can be interpreted as “akind of language that says more and says it more intensely than does ordinarylanguage,” (Arp & Johnson, 2002, p. 3). It shows that poetryis a short literary work that tells something in the style of figurativelanguage.
Similar to poetry, song lyrics also contain typical words written bymusicians to convey their meaning, both implicitly or explicitly. Repetition ofthese distinctive words also sometimes occurs in a lyric that is in a sectioncalled reffrain or chorus. The writing of song lyrics isvery subjective because it comes from the author’s thought, as well as poetryand other literary works.
Thus, by applying the stylistic theory in this paper,it can be revealed the meaning as well as the language style appeared inJavanese hip hop songs2.3 IdentityIdentityis simply seen as a thing inherent in a person which distinguishes one fromothers. Weeks in Baker (2008) notes that identity is a matter of similarity anddifference about the personal and social aspects, one’s equality with a numberof people and what distinguishes someone from others (Barker, 2003, p. 175). Identityis a sign (sign) that distinguishes a person with others. Identity is asignified essence with signs of taste, belief, attitude and lifestyle (Barker, 2003, p. 218).
Identity is also defined as the creation of boundaries where there is a particularlabel in it. One’s identity is inseparable from a process that includes lifeexperience, family background, environment and so on. Turnerin Samovar (2015) describes three categories to classify identity, namely humanidentity, social identity, and personal identity (Samovar, Porter, McDaniel, & Roy, 2015, p. 185). Human identity is aview that connects a person with all human beings and separates a person fromanother life form. Social identity is representative of the group in which aperson belongs, such as race, ethnicity, occupation, age, hometown, and so on.
Social identity is a product of the differences between members of a particularsocial group and not a member of another social group. Personal identity arisesfrom the things that distinguish someone from others and signifies a person asa special and unique person. III. METHOD3.
1 Thetype of the researchThe type of the research isdescriptive qualitative method. According to Moleong (2011), descriptivequalitative is a technique where books and other writing materials are used tosupport the research question (Moleong, 2008, p. 7). As a descriptiveresearch, the researcher looked for, collected, and then analyzed data to makeconclusion.
Qualitative method tends to emphasize meaning and contains morethan specific finding in the form of facts or particular elements of knowledge.3.2 Sourceof data and dataThe source of data in the researchis song lyrics from NDX A.K.A.
Familia entitled “Sayang”. The research was done in Surabaya. The subject of theresearch is the fans of NDX A.K.
A. Familia which consist of 3 people. Thewriter selected the data that was found and arranged them as necessary. 3.3 Techniqueof collecting dataAccording to Burns(Burns, 1999, p.
9), there are two broad groupings ofobservational and non-observational methods, they are: a. Observationaltechniques 1) Observation2) Photographsb. Non-observationaltechniques 1) Interviews2) Questionnaires3) Documents 4) TestThosetechniques suited in conducting classroom action research for collecting thedata. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the data after collecting the data.The techniques of analyzing data are mentioned below:a. Get to Know the DataThis step requires the writer to consider the data by the qualityand precedes it.
b. Focus the Analysis 1) Focus by question or topic, time or eventIt is important to analyze at how all individuals or groupsresponded to each question, topic, or for a given event.2) Focus by case, individual or groupOrganizing the data, individual or group, and analyze it as awhole.c. Categorize InformationThis step referred by some people as coding the data or indexing thedata.d. Identify Patterns, Connections within and between CategoriesAssessing the relative importance or different themes in order tomake the next step, interpretation of the data, comes easier.e.
InterpretationAttaching meaning andsignificance to the analysis. (Taylor & Reiner, 2003, pp. 5-6) IV. DISCUSSIONInthe first song in this album, “Sayang” , we are presented with the theme of atypical love problem of youth today. At the first line in the first stanza ofthis song “Sayang, opo kowe krungu jerite atiku?mengharap engkau kembali” translatedinto “Darling,are you listening? The cry of my heart, expecting you come back to me?”are hyperbola words that the ear is asked to listen to one’s thought. That’s anexaggeration.
The lyrics represent a great hope amidst of the inner stress. Ashe unable to express his heart, he can only scream in his heart and hope thathis love expression can be listened by his lover. Inthe second row the lyrics of this song “Sayang, nganti memutih rambutku, ra bakalluntur tresnaku” translated into “Honey, until I grow older, my love toyou will not be faded” shows the love for his lovers even until hegrows older, he will always be awaited. This lyric contains a hyperbolic styleof language because it shows this an impossible act and exaggerated impression.Hyperbole,which means exaggerating the expression is the language style chosen by thesongwriter in making this phenomenal song. The use of hyperboles generally relays feelings or emotionsfrom the speaker to reveal the speaker’s feeling.
Hyperbole can be used tocreate a humorous, sad, angry, or convincing impression (Arp & Johnson, 2002, p. 71). In this song,hyperbole is used as the rhetoric to create a sad impression. Following is the original lyric of the song “Sayang”by NDX A.K.A.
Familia :NDXA.K.A. – Sayangsayang opokowe krungu jerite atikumengharap engkau kembalisayang nganti memutih rambutkura bakal luntur tresnakuwis takcoba ngelaleke jenengmu soko atikusak tenane ra ngapusi isih tresno sliramudo pepuja neng ati nanging koe ra retikoe sing tak wanti-wantimalah jebulsaiki koe mblenjani janjijare sehidup semati nanging opo buktikoe medot tresnoku demi lanangan liyoyo wes ora popo, insyaallah aku iso lilomeh sambatkalih sintenyen sampun mekaten, merana uripkuaku welasno ningmas, aku mesakno akuaku nangis nganti metu eluh getih putihsayang opokowe krungu jerite atikumengharap engkau kembalisayang nganti memutih rambutkura bakal luntur tresnakuhari demihari uwis tak lewatiyen pancen dalane kudu kuat atiibaratke sego uwis dadi buburnanging tresno iki ora bakal luntursak tenaneaku iki pancen tresno awakmuora ono liane sing iso dadi penggantimuwis tanggung awakmu sik coc-k neng atikunganti atiku njerit atimu ra bakal krungumeh sambatkalih sintenyen sampun mekaten, merana uripkuaku welasno kangmas, aku mesakno akuaku nangis nganti metu eluh getih putihsayang opokowe krungu jerite atikumengharap engkau kembalisayang nganti memutih rambutkura bakal luntur tresnakusayang opokrungu tangise atikumengharap koe bali neng jero ati ikinganti rambutku putih, nangis eluh dadi getihmbok yo gek ndang bali ngelakoni tresno suciaku marangsliramu do ragu ning atikuaku ra iso ngapusi sak tenane neng atimung kanggo sliramu cintaku tetap abadiselamanya sampai akhir hayat inimeh sambatkalih sintenyen sampun mekaten, merana uripkuaku welasno ningmas, aku mesakno akuaku nangis nganti metu eluh getih putihsayang opokowe krungu jerite atikumengharap engkau kembalisayang nganti memutih rambutkura bakal luntur tresnakupercoyo opopepujamucintaku tetap abadiSource: https://lirik.web.
id/lirik-lagu-ndx-a-k-a-sayang/One thing that can be noticed in this song by thereader is the language of this lyric, especially in its repetition. In this lyric,the repetition is occurred several times in each lines and cause of intendedmeaning. In this lyric, the singer often uses these two sentences “Sayang,opo kowe krungu jerite atiku, mengharap engkau kembali”. Those twosentences are related to the singer’s feeling. In linguistic field, an intendedmeaning can be analyzed by somebody and it is called pragmatic. Those twosentences are the guidance to understand the singer’s feeling in this song. Inthis song, the singer also uses many phrases that have a hard meaning such as “opokowe krungu”, “jerite atiku”, “memutih rambutku” and so on.
Pragmatically, the singerwants to share his feeling when his love must be gone in this lyric. His loveis go with someone else. Talking about language style in the literary work, wecan see this through the lens of stylistic.
In this lyric, the writer usesliterary review in analyze stylistic NDX A.K.A.
‘s song “Sayang”. The writer tryto analyze based on the rhyme of this lyric. Rhyme is the matching of finalvowel or consonant sounds in two or more words. Rhyme is also words sound alikebecause they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. “Sayang”consists of fourteen stanzas that range from four to two lines each.
The songuses repetition and rhyme to create the qualities of unity and euphony, or apleasing musicality. The repeated use of the end rhymes “krungu,” “atiku,” “rambutku,”and “tresnaku” offer a link from stanza to stanza throughout the lyric. Thename “Sayang” appears at least once in every stanza and the phrase “opo kowekrungu” also appears frequently, adding to the unified structure.
Repetition ofkey words within lines gives the lyric its pleasing sound while at the sametime emphasizing main ideas. For example, in line 2, “mengharap engkau kembali”establishes the fact that the singer place a big hope about his lover, animportant fact to recognize if the reader is to understand the extent of thespeaker’s desire.The lyric’s rhyme scheme begins simply with an a b a a patternbut gets more complicated as the lyric progresses, repeating rhymes within aline – known as internal rhyme – and ending with the pattern a b a a x abin the last stanza. The lines increase in length and in number in this laststanza. These devices – the increasingly complex rhyme scheme and lengtheningof lines – allow the lyric to intensify in dramatic pitch.
Here I can conclude that the language styles used in thisJavanese hip hop is hyperbole and with the simple rhyme scheme a b a a . The language styles appeared in this lyric is easily understood bythe youth. Talking about the existence of Javanese hip hop, itcannot be separated from the public perception toward its existence. This canbe seen from the public interest towards the presence of Javanese hip hop.
Ihave done some unstructured interviews to know public perception toward theexistence of Javanese hip hop. Patton (2002) in Zhang and Wildemuth (2009)described unstructured interviews as a natural extension of participantobservation, because they so often occur as part of ongoing participantobservation fieldwork (Zhang & Wildemuth, 2009, pp. 1-2).
I classify my respondents by age, there are 18-20years old, 21-24 years old, age 30-37 years old. I get respondents named Gilangaged 18 years, Bima 22 years and Agus 34 years. As for the question at theinterview is “how do you think about the existence of hip hop music ofJava language?”.
After doing the interview, I get answers from eachrespondent and I classify by age. Gilang 18 years stated that hip hop musicJava language is very popular among his friends. He assumed that the simplelyrics helped him to keep singing Javanese hip hop. Then the 22-year-old Bimasaid listening to Javanese hip hop music with the lost story theme makes itlike entering the time machine by remembering the times of his relationshipwhen in high school. In addition, with the lyrics of Javanese language, it makesthe sense of belonging to song is increasing. Lastly, Agus 34 years thoughtthat Javanese hip hop is another alternative to musical genre that can be heardby the public. He also added that as a person who speaks Javanese as the firstlanguage, will be feel proud of the increasingly Javanese music group whopopularized Javanese language through music. He also hopes that there will bemore Javanese people who speaks Javanese as their first language do not leavetheir identity.
From here, I can conclude that the existence of Javanese hiphop gets a positive response from the society, especially those who speaksJavanese as the first language.Then whether hip hop music Java language can maintainthe identity of the people of Java in the midst of globalization era. Identityis closely related to symbols. A symbol or sign is a sign used to give specialfeatures to something or someone. Symbols used by someone or something that cansupport and form a certain identity. Symbols are communicated with other humanbeings through social interaction. Humans have the ability to interact withother parties through sharing of certain symbols.
Humans who are relationalbeings need symbols to interact with each other. Symbols such as language,writing or others are dynamic and unique. The interaction of these symbols producesa particular meaning in communication.
Symbol used by NDX A.K.A. to show its identity one ofthem using Java language in their song lyrics. This symbol is used to showtheir identity because of their musical flow that carries the flow of Hip Hopmusic Java automatically then the language used in the lyrics is also dominatedby the Java language. The Java language used in their lyrics is a dailyJavanese language that is easy to understand.
From this point, I can concludethat Javanese people will be connected to their identity as Javanese whensinging Javanese hip hop song. V. CONCLUSIONMusicas one of the media can be a determinant to preserve a language. In this paper,the lyrics in “Sayang” song have one main theme of romance experienced byteenagers. Through the stylistic approach, it can be found the style oflanguage in the lyrics of Javanese hip hop.Basedon the analysis and findings that have been done in the previous chapter, thisauthor concludes that the lyrics in the song darling have a style of languageto express the meaning of the lyrics. The author also concludes that byunderstanding his language style, we can understand the meaning of a lyric.
Understanding this meaning will guide us to know the thoughts or messages thatthe lyricist wants to convey to the listener or reader. In addition, basedon the result of the interview, it also can be found that Javanese hip hop getsa positive response from the community, especially those who speaks Javanese asthe first language. Thus, the Javanese people will be connected to theiridentity as Javanese when singing Javanese hip hop song.