I.

  Valid Data a)  Submit the URL’s forat least three Internet sources of information on the definition/description ofvalid data that you have studied. More than three would be good! ?.                      Sagor,Richard.

(n.d.). Guiding School Improvement With Action Research. ASCD.

17 January 2018. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.

org/            publications/books/100047/chapters/[email protected]            Valid-and-Reliable-Data-Collection-Plan.aspx.                     Reineke, Martha. (n.d.). ExploringReliability in Academic Assessment.

  CHFA SOA. Retrieved from https://chfasoa.uni.edu/reliabilityandvalidity.htm .                     Reliability and Validity.

(n.d.). UC Davis. Retrieved from http://psc.dss.

ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/intro/validity.htmb)  Submit yourexplanation of valid data; one or two paragraphs should be adequate todemonstrate your knowledge.                 Validdata is data that is true and measures what it claims it is going to measure (Reineke(n.

d.) . Valid data can be broken down into two parts: internal and external.Internal data is the way data is collected and or the purpose of the data. Thesecond is external data. This is data that covers all grounds; all aspects(“Reliability & Validity,” n.

d.). c)  Explain when datawould be invalid and provide an example or two. ?                Datawould be invalid if there are not enough numbers, or the way the design of thetest does not measure what it’s supposed to. Data can also be invalid if it onlymeasures certain ages, certain ethnicities, or certain places (Reineke (n.d.).II.

Reliable Data ?a)  Submit the URL’s for at least three Internet sources ofinformation on the definition/description of reliable data that you havestudied. More than three would be good! ?.     Reliabilityand Validity. (n.d.).

UC Davis. http://psc.dss.ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/intro/validity.htm.    Trochim, William.

(2006).Reliability. Web Center for SocialResearch Methods. 17 January 2018.

Retrieved on https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/reliable.php.    b)  Submit your explanation of reliable data; one or twoparagraphs should be adequate to demonstrate your knowledge.

?            Reliabledata is data that produces the same results. There are different types ofassessments that produce reliable data: administering the same test twice thatproduces similar results, administering different tests with the same type ofquestions that produce the same results, or test items alone that have the sametypes of questions produce similar results. The essential key is that no matterhow assessments are given, results are always the same (Reliability (n.d.). .

    c)  Explain when test data would be considered unreliable,and provide an example or two. ?            Datacan be unreliable if it is incomplete or inconsistent. Data can be unreliable if it is incomplete. If data is incomplete then itwould be deemed false. Data can also be unreliable if it is not consistentmeaning different subjects that are not put together but are actually the samething (Reliability & Validity (n.

d.).III.          Test Bias .

                     a)  What is test bias? ?Test bias is when a test can be deemed unfair. It can be deemed unfairfor various reasons, such as the format of the test. It can cater to onlycertain minority groups who will score high, while other groups will score low.Items can also function differently for different cultural backgrounds. Somemay have learned the content some may have not.

In short, a test can be biasedbased on content, structure, or groupings: test items do not connect/relate toa certain topic (Price, Warne, Yoon, 2014)..                     b)  Provide the URL for two or more web sites you haveexplored that discuss bias in tests.

? Price Chris, WarneRussell, & Yoon Meyeongsun. (2014). Exploring the             variousinterpretations of “Test Bias”. CulturalDiversity and             EthnicMinority Psychology, 20(40), 570-582. doi:10.

1037/            a0036503  .                     Test Bias. (2015).

The Glossary ofEducation Reform. 18 January 2018. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/test-bias/.                     c)  List at least three types of bias and provide a briefdefinition for each type. ?Construct bias- A test that measureswhat is supposed to measure.Content bias- A test that caters to a specific ethnic group more than it doesothersPredictive bias- A test that does not predict all ethnic group outcomesequally.IV.

          Types of Assessments ?Provide your explanation of the following typesof assessments. Two or three sentences on each would be adequate, but toreceive credit for your response you must also provide a specific example. I.              .    a)  Performance-based assessment- a broad test based on aparticular unit or standard that requires critical thinking. An example is aportfolio that demonstrates all learning and compiles all assignments in acourse of study. ?.    b)  Ability test- A test that measure strengths & weakness of a person.

Anexample of an ability test is a IQ test.  ?.    c)  Aptitude test- An intelligence test that measures through verbal communicationand numbers.

An example test would be a numerical test that covers stats,graphs, and figures. .    d)  Personality test- A test that measures people’s personality andbehavior   c) IQ test- measures a person’sintelligence, processing skills.    d)  Criterion-referenced test – measures students skills on aspecific standard (ex: CCSS standard. An example is a teacher or collaborativelearning team generated test..

    e)  Norm-referenced test- measure students as a whole of the nationalaverage scores. An example would be a high stakes test..    f)  Formative assessment – An assessment used to check for understandingafter something has been taught (a specific standard, objective, goal).    g)  Summative assessment –  Anassessment given after multiple lessons or units have been taught or at the endof the year  ?V.Quantitative & Qualitative Data a)  What is thedifference between quantitative and qualitative data? ?The difference between Quantitative and Qualitative data is Qualitativemeasures data without numbers, through questioning and how things arenaturally, Quantitative measures data with numbers (Saul, 2017).b)  Provide the URL’sfor three valid and reliable web sites on the topic that you have read andcomprehend.

?.                     Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchMethods. (n.d.). Skills You Need.

19January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.skillsyouneed.com/learn/quantitative-and-qualitative.html.                     McLeod, Saul.

(2017). Qualitative vsQuantitative. Simply Psychology. 18January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.

simplypsychology.org/qualitative-quantitative.html.                      c)  Formulate andprovide examples of two questions that would be used to collect quantitativedata for a research project in your major / program of study. ?1. Are students being taught appropriate curriculum to succeed onstandardized tests?2.What topics in tests are receiving low achievement and what topics in tests arereceiving high achievement?  d)  Formulate andprovide examples of two questions that would be used to collect qualitativedata for a research project in your major / program of study.

?1. A needs assessment: Are students receiving the needs necessary to succeed in school? What schoolapproaches are being done to ensure every student has the opportunity tosucceed?2. School Culture:What it is the school environment like at our school? Is it different fromother school environments? How?VI.          Empirical Research a)  What is an empiricalstudy? ?An Empirical study is research that is done through observation orexperience to solve a question or experiment (Sociological Research (n.d.).b)  How is ameta-analysis different from an empirical study? ?                Ameta analysis reviews a study while empirical study is the study itself. Metaanalysis breaks down the study (Haidich, 2010).

c)  Provide a briefparagraph explaining how the use of empirical studies is required for thisclass. ?                Empiricalstudies I see fit for this class is to observe tests and data to ensure thatthey are valid, reliable, and avoids test bias.d)  Provide three APAformatted references for quantitative studies/articles and three forqualitative studies in your major / program of study. ? HaidichA.B. (2010).

Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia,                 14(1).doi: PMCC3049418.Psychology: Finding Emperical Studies. (n.

d.). Modesto Junior College.                18January 2018. http://libguides.mjc.edu/empiricalresearchSociological Research Methods: Empircal Research. (n.

d.). J. Murrey                AtkinsLibrary. 18 January 2018. https://guides.library.

                uncc.edu/c.php?g=173030&p=1143848VII.        Excel Spreadsheet ?Demonstrate that you can build and use a simpleAPA format spreadsheet.

You are going to need this skill to complete ModuleSeven. You may have someone show you how to do this, but all of the work mustbe your own. Use your spreadsheet to calculate the means for the height ofmales and the height of females in a class. The data is provided below.

Savethe spreadsheet as a PDF and insert it into the document. Ms. Smith’s 6th grade class:?Height of malestudent in inches: 61, 62, 60, 59, 65, 60, 59, 61, 62, 63 Height of femalestudents in inches: 61, 63, 65, 68, 60, 67, 66, 64, 63, 61 VIII. Statistics .    a)  Define “Statistics” using your own words, and explain whythey are important to educators. ?Statisticsis data that is looked at and communicated to form goals and objectives.Statistics rely on accurate numbers and what those numbers measure (What areStatistics, (n.

d.). Statistics are usually communicated through graphs andtables (What are Data and Stats, 2018)..    b)  Provide the URLs for three web sites you used to createyour own understanding of the meaning of the word “statistics.” ?.    Hebl, Mikki.

(n.d.). What areStatistics? Online Stat Book. Retrievedfrom             http://onlinestatbook.com/2/introduction/what_are.

html.    What are Data and what areStatistics?. (2018).

Elon University.19 January             2018.Retrieved from http://elon.libguides.

com/data.    What are Statistics. (n.d.

). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrievedfrom            http://www.abs.gov.

au/websitedbs/a3121120.nsf/home/statistical+languag            e+-+what+are+statistics  IX.          Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics .                     a)  Define descriptive statistics and define inferentialstatistics. ?Descriptive statistics describes what we are looking at in data making iteasier to understand the data that’s in front of us. Inferential statistics Is data that is looked at to make predictions about larger groups or otherlarger sets of information (Descriptive and Inferential, (n.d.).

.                     b)  Write a brief paragraph to explain the difference betweenDescriptive Statistics and Inferential statistics. ?The difference between descriptive and inferential statistics is how datais used. Descriptive data describes the data being analyzed, providingimportant details and descriptions but conclusions and predictions are not met.Inferential data takes it a step further in providing more rigorouscalculations and making inferences to further the study (Diffrence Between(n.d.

). .                     c)  Provide at least three URL’s for the site you visited tolearn this material. ?.                     Cole, Nicki. (n.

d). UnderstandingDescriptive vs. Inferential Statistics.             Thought Co. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.

com/            understanding-descriptive-vs-inferential-statistics-3026698.                     Descriptive and Inferential Statstics. (n.d.).  LaerdStatistics. Retrieved from https://statistics.laerd.

com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php.                      Differencebetween Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. (n.

d.) Difference Between. Retrieved from http://www.

differencebetween.net/language/words-language/difference-between-descriptive-and-inferential-statistics/X.Applied Research ?Test & Measurements is a companion to theApplied Research course. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation and use oftests. Elementary statistical terms and processes are studied. .

    a)  What are the fivechapters of a standard thesis? ?The five chapters of a standard thesis is introduction, literature review,methodology, findings, conclusions (The Layout (n.d.)..    b)  The knowledge yougain from this course supports which chapter and how? ?The knowledge gained from course will assist in Methodology.

It will help usanswer our research question using proper data and information (The Layout,n.d.). .    The layout of theDissertation or Thesis. (n.

d.). Nelson Mandela University. Retreived from http://ebeit.mandela.ac.za/ebeit/media/Store/documents/Research%20 Guidelines/WritingDissertationThesis/THE-LAYOUT-OF-THE-DISSERTATION-OR-THESIS.pdf

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