I.  Valid Data

a)  Submit the URL’s for
at least three Internet sources of information on the definition/description of
valid data that you have studied. More than three would be good! ?

Richard. (n.d.). Guiding School Improvement With Action Research. ASCD. 17 January 2018. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/
            publications/books/100047/chapters/[email protected]

Reineke, Martha. (n.d.). Exploring
Reliability in Academic Assessment. 
CHFA SOA. Retrieved from https://chfasoa.uni.edu/reliability

Reliability and Validity. (n.d.). UC Davis. Retrieved from http://psc.

b)  Submit your
explanation of valid data; one or two paragraphs should be adequate to
demonstrate your knowledge.

data is data that is true and measures what it claims it is going to measure (Reineke
(n.d.) . Valid data can be broken down into two parts: internal and external.
Internal data is the way data is collected and or the purpose of the data. The
second is external data. This is data that covers all grounds; all aspects
(“Reliability & Validity,” n.d.).

c)  Explain when data
would be invalid and provide an example or two. ?
would be invalid if there are not enough numbers, or the way the design of the
test does not measure what it’s supposed to. Data can also be invalid if it only
measures certain ages, certain ethnicities, or certain places (Reineke (n.d.).

II.Reliable Data ?

a)  Submit the URL’s for at least three Internet sources of
information on the definition/description of reliable data that you have
studied. More than three would be good! ?

.     Reliability
and Validity. (n.d.). UC Davis. http://psc.dss.ucdavis.edu/sommerb

.    Trochim, William. (2006).
Reliability. Web Center for Social
Research Methods. 17 January 2018. Retrieved on https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/

.    b)  Submit your explanation of reliable data; one or two
paragraphs should be adequate to demonstrate your knowledge. ?
data is data that produces the same results. There are different types of
assessments that produce reliable data: administering the same test twice that
produces similar results, administering different tests with the same type of
questions that produce the same results, or test items alone that have the same
types of questions produce similar results. The essential key is that no matter
how assessments are given, results are always the same (Reliability &
Validity (n.d.).

.    c)  Explain when test data would be considered unreliable,
and provide an example or two. ?
can be unreliable if it is incomplete or inconsistent.
Data can be unreliable if it is incomplete. If data is incomplete then it
would be deemed false. Data can also be unreliable if it is not consistent
meaning different subjects that are not put together but are actually the same
thing (Reliability & Validity (n.d.).

Test Bias

a)  What is test bias? ?
Test bias is when a test can be deemed unfair. It can be deemed unfair
for various reasons, such as the format of the test. It can cater to only
certain minority groups who will score high, while other groups will score low.
Items can also function differently for different cultural backgrounds. Some
may have learned the content some may have not. In short, a test can be biased
based on content, structure, or groupings: test items do not connect/relate to
a certain topic (Price, Warne, Yoon, 2014).

b)  Provide the URL for two or more web sites you have
explored that discuss bias in tests. ?
 Price Chris, Warne
Russell, & Yoon Meyeongsun. (2014). Exploring the
interpretations of “Test Bias”. Cultural
Diversity and
Minority Psychology, 20(40), 570-582. doi:10.1037/

Test Bias. (2015). The Glossary of
Education Reform. 18 January 2018. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/test-bias/

c)  List at least three types of bias and provide a brief
definition for each type. ?

Construct bias- A test that measures
what is supposed to measure.
Content bias- A test that caters to a specific ethnic group more than it does
Predictive bias- A test that does not predict all ethnic group outcomes

Types of Assessments ?

Provide your explanation of the following types
of assessments. Two or three sentences on each would be adequate, but to
receive credit for your response you must also provide a specific example.


.    a)  Performance-based assessment- a broad test based on a
particular unit or standard that requires critical thinking. An example is a
portfolio that demonstrates all learning and compiles all assignments in a
course of study. ?

.    b)  Ability test- A test that measure strengths & weakness of a person. An
example of an ability test is a IQ test.  ?

.    c)  Aptitude test- An intelligence test that measures through verbal communication
and numbers. An example test would be a numerical test that covers stats,
graphs, and figures.

.    d)  Personality test- A test that measures people’s personality and

   c) IQ test- measures a person’s
intelligence, processing skills

.    d)  Criterion-referenced test – measures students skills on a
specific standard (ex: CCSS standard. An example is a teacher or collaborative
learning team generated test.

.    e)  Norm-referenced test- measure students as a whole of the national
average scores. An example would be a high stakes test.

.    f)  Formative assessment – An assessment used to check for understanding
after something has been taught (a specific standard, objective, goal)

.    g)  Summative assessment –  An
assessment given after multiple lessons or units have been taught or at the end
of the year  ?

V.Quantitative & Qualitative Data

a)  What is the
difference between quantitative and qualitative data? ?
The difference between Quantitative and Qualitative data is Qualitative
measures data without numbers, through questioning and how things are
naturally, Quantitative measures data with numbers (Saul, 2017).

b)  Provide the URL’s
for three valid and reliable web sites on the topic that you have read and
comprehend. ?

Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Methods. (n.d.). Skills You Need. 19
January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.skillsyouneed.com/learn/

McLeod, Saul. (2017). Qualitative vs
Quantitative. Simply Psychology. 18
January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org


c)  Formulate and
provide examples of two questions that would be used to collect quantitative
data for a research project in your major / program of study. ?
1. Are students being taught appropriate curriculum to succeed on
standardized tests?

What topics in tests are receiving low achievement and what topics in tests are
receiving high achievement? 

d)  Formulate and
provide examples of two questions that would be used to collect qualitative
data for a research project in your major / program of study. ?
1. A needs assessment:
Are students receiving the needs necessary to succeed in school? What school
approaches are being done to ensure every student has the opportunity to
2. School Culture:
What it is the school environment like at our school? Is it different from
other school environments? How?

Empirical Research

a)  What is an empirical
study? ?
An Empirical study is research that is done through observation or
experience to solve a question or experiment (Sociological Research (n.d.).

b)  How is a
meta-analysis different from an empirical study? ?
meta analysis reviews a study while empirical study is the study itself. Meta
analysis breaks down the study (Haidich, 2010).

c)  Provide a brief
paragraph explaining how the use of empirical studies is required for this
class. ?
studies I see fit for this class is to observe tests and data to ensure that
they are valid, reliable, and avoids test bias.

d)  Provide three APA
formatted references for quantitative studies/articles and three for
qualitative studies in your major / program of study. ?


A.B. (2010). Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia,
doi: PMCC3049418.
Psychology: Finding Emperical Studies. (n.d.). Modesto Junior College.
January 2018. http://libguides.mjc.edu/empiricalresearch
Sociological Research Methods: Empircal Research. (n.d.). J. Murrey
Library. 18 January 2018. https://guides.library.

Excel Spreadsheet ?

Demonstrate that you can build and use a simple
APA format spreadsheet. You are going to need this skill to complete Module
Seven. You may have someone show you how to do this, but all of the work must
be your own. Use your spreadsheet to calculate the means for the height of
males and the height of females in a class. The data is provided below. Save
the spreadsheet as a PDF and insert it into the document.

Ms. Smith’s 6th grade class:?Height of male
student in inches: 61, 62, 60, 59, 65, 60, 59, 61, 62, 63 Height of female
students in inches: 61, 63, 65, 68, 60, 67, 66, 64, 63, 61

VIII. Statistics

.    a)  Define “Statistics” using your own words, and explain why
they are important to educators. ?
is data that is looked at and communicated to form goals and objectives.
Statistics rely on accurate numbers and what those numbers measure (What are
Statistics, (n.d.). Statistics are usually communicated through graphs and
tables (What are Data and Stats, 2018).

.    b)  Provide the URLs for three web sites you used to create
your own understanding of the meaning of the word “statistics.” ?

.    Hebl, Mikki. (n.d.). What are
Statistics? Online Stat Book. Retrieved

.    What are Data and what are
Statistics?. (2018). Elon University.
19 January
Retrieved from http://elon.libguides.com/data

.    What are Statistics. (n.d.). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved



Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

a)  Define descriptive statistics and define inferential
statistics. ?
Descriptive statistics describes what we are looking at in data making it
easier to understand the data that’s in front of us. Inferential statistics
Is data that is looked at to make predictions about larger groups or other
larger sets of information (Descriptive and Inferential, (n.d.).

b)  Write a brief paragraph to explain the difference between
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential statistics. ?
The difference between descriptive and inferential statistics is how data
is used. Descriptive data describes the data being analyzed, providing
important details and descriptions but conclusions and predictions are not met.
Inferential data takes it a step further in providing more rigorous
calculations and making inferences to further the study (Diffrence Between

c)  Provide at least three URL’s for the site you visited to
learn this material. ?

Cole, Nicki. (n.d). Understanding
Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics.
            Thought Co. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/

Descriptive and Inferential Statstics. (n.d.).  Laerd
Statistics. Retrieved from https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php

between Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. (n.d.) Difference Between. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/

X.Applied Research ?

Test & Measurements is a companion to the
Applied Research course. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation and use of
tests. Elementary statistical terms and processes are studied.

.    a)  What are the five
chapters of a standard thesis? ?
The five chapters of a standard thesis is introduction, literature review,
methodology, findings, conclusions (The Layout (n.d.).

.    b)  The knowledge you
gain from this course supports which chapter and how? ?
The knowledge gained from course will assist in Methodology. It will help us
answer our research question using proper data and information (The Layout,

.    The layout of the
Dissertation or Thesis. (n.d.). Nelson Mandela University. Retreived from http://ebeit.mandela.ac.za/ebeit/media/Store/documents/Research%20


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