ICU is the abbreviation of intensive care units, which can stabilize patients’ vital functions and set the stage for healing and allow them to improve. The eICU is a program that provides remote surveillance monitoring of patients in the ICUs at different hospitals. eICU utilizes cameras, monitors, and mics, and speakers in each patient room that allows the healthcare team to have a bidirectional communication with the staff, the family, and the patient who are in the ICUs. Both ICU and eICU are designed to improve the quality of health care services, while ICU is used to directly affect the patients’ conditions, eICU affect the patients indirectly by providing more communications between health care staffs and patients. 2. What is the historical relationship between HL7 and FHIR? (~200 words, 0.

2 points)HL7 standard is the international standards for healthcare messaging, which was created in 1987.2 Medical personnels use that standard in their communications with the hospitals they serve to automate healthcare data sharing and improve patient care. Due to the complexity of HL7, there is a need to build a new standard to automate healthcare data sharing and improve patient care. The new standard is FHIR, Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources. It can leverage existing logical and theoretical models to provide a consistent, easy to implement, and rigorous mechanism for exchanging data between healthcare applications. FHIR was built on previous data format standards from HL7.1 It can satisfy the needs covered by all of the previous primary HL7 interoperability standards. In many cases, it also provides additional benefits in terms of ease of interoperability.

Therefore, the possibility exists that FHIR could gradually replace some or all of these standards. However, it is unclear how rapidly (or even if) the market will make such a migration.3 It is likely that most of these standards will exist in parallel for quite some time. HL7 has committed to ongoing maintenance of existing standards for as long as the HL7 membership requires.()  3. How does the uninsured impact healthcare costs? What are 3 chronic diseases that contribute to driving those costs? (~250 words, 0.3 points)Since insured and uninsured people who are injured or newly diagnosed with a chronic condition receive similar plans for follow-up care from their physician.

People without health coverage are less likely to obtain all the recommended services than those insured people. Finally, because the uninsured people are less likely to have regular outpatient care, they are more likely to end up with expensive hospitalizations for avoidable health problems and to experienced declines in their overall health. When hospitalized, uninsured people receive fewer diagnostic and therapeutic services and have higher mortality rates than those with insurance. Therefore, the uninsured people is costly in a long term view.In 2008, centers for disease control and prevention made a software called chronic disease calculator, which calculates the financial loss caused by different chronic diseases. In 2015, the third version is published. 5 According to the third version calculator, we can find Cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are the three major chronic diseases for the financial loss.

These chronic disease cause trillions dollars loss to United States each year. The other three major chronic diseases in US are asthma, depression and arthritis.

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