In the year of 2020 we commemorate 70 years since the end of World War ll. Many regard the entry of the USA in the war to be the main reason for the defeat of the Nazi Regime. However, new evidence uncovered by historians suggest another reason, which may overturn the current historical consensus. The new evidence argues that the entry of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the war was the deciding factor towards the defeat of Nazi Germany instead of the USA. The new evidence, suggesting that the entry of the USSR in the war to be the deciding factor has its strengths and weaknesses. The sheer numbers of the Red Army was one that was unprecedented, Stalin’s five year plan included mass producing armoured vehicles in case of a war with Germany which he feared. The tanks built by the USSR were not the best but in mass numbers, they brought carnage to the eastern front of the German army. Additionally, the number of man sent by the USSR that fought and suffered casualties in the war greatly outnumbered the other countries, estimating a number of 20 million .
The soviets were estimated to have taken down at least three quarters of the German forces and were the ones responsible for capturing Berlin, the heart of Germany. However, a weakness in this argument is that the USA funded the USSR greatly in the war and the Red Army might not be able to accomplish what they did without the support of her allies. Another flaw to this argument is that the Germans were heavily invested in protecting the western front due to the involvement of the USA in the war. The Germans figured that if the allies were to gain a foothold in mainland Europe, it would greatly hurt the chances the Nazis had to win the war. One example of an over commitment of resources to the western front was the Atlantic Wall, which had a span of about3000 kilometers and millions of mines, bunkers and men defending Nazi Germany. The eastern front on the other hand, did not have such a massive investment. Therefore, the entry of the USSR may not be the main reason for the fall of Nazi Germany. The entry of the United States of America in the war has many strengths.
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One of which is the economical and power the USA brought to the Allied forces. After the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbour, the USA came out of the state of isolationism after having about 1178 Americans injured and 2403 Americans dead. The USA adopted a “lend-lease” policy in March 11 1941 which allowed her to supply the British , Free France, China, Soviet Union and many other countries with weapons and essential supplies. This eventually led to USA sending over $11.3 billion worth of war supplies to her allies. This was essential to keeping the other European allies relevant in the fight as they were suffering heavily losses from the extended war with Germany. Secondly, the USA had immense industrial power and manpower .
After entry into the war, the USA continued to send the Soviet Union 400,000 heavy trucks , 2,000 locomotives , 11,000 railcars, and billions of dollars worth of strategic resources. By 1943, the USA also supplied about 20% of Britain’s munitions. American war production was unprecedented, at the huge Willow Run plant in Michigan, the greatest generation produced a B-24 heavy bomber every hour.
A shipyard could mass-produce an ocean-going Liberty merchant ship in a week. The USA would produce more airplanes than all of the major war powers combined in 4 years and USA would have one of the largest navies in human history by 1944. With production levels eclipsing the Germans and the entire Axis powers combined,the USA can be said to be the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany. Lastly, the USA had significant manpower and technology to rival the Axis. The USA mobilised 12 million soldiers , about the same number the Soviet Union, despite having a population of about 40 million fewer citizens. The addition of females in the war effort was an advantage for USA as it greatly boosted their production power where as the Nazis only wanted the women to bear children at home, which was less effective in helping out with the war. The technological edge USA had was its four-engine heavy bomber, the B-29s which none of the Axis powers could replicate.
The American M1 rifle, P-51 Mustang fighter and other weapons of the USA were the best weapons of their class. Therefore, the manpower and technological prowess of the USA was an essential part of the defeat of Nazi Germany. I am convinced that the new evidence should not overturn the current historical consensus. The entry of USSR did cause the Germans to suffer a heavy loss in the eastern front, especially Operation Barbarossa which was a huge failure by the Germans. However, this was not possible without the constant and funding by the USA.
The USA also funded the other countries fighting on the western front and spearheaded the invasion of Normandy, which was the stepping stone for the liberation of France from Nazi control and the fall of Nazi Germany as a whole. Without the support of the USA, the western powers of Britain , Canada and French resistance were not enough to break into the heavily fortified western front of Nazi Germany. If the measure of wartime success is defined by quickly defeating enemies at the least cost in blood and treasure, then the USA waged a brilliant war.