In1911, Beijerinck, a Dutch microbiologist isolated and described the genus Acinetobacter emerged as a significantnosocomial pathogen. In the nature, Acinetobacter spp are free-living and fairly stablein the environment and are widely distributed. They are aerobic nonfermentative and Gram-negative bacilli. Warm climateand humidity increase outbreak of Acinetobacteris much more. Its causes many diseases like pneumonia, septicemia, woundsepsis, urinary tract infection, endocarditis and meningitis are the commoninfections and is a known nosocomialpathogen causing a wide range of clinical diseases including blood stream infections(BSI).
During last decades, multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. have been reported almostcertainly as a consequence of extensive use of potent broad-spectrumantimicrobial agents in hospitals throughout the world (Towner, 2009). Identification of ESBLAcinetobacter spp is very important due to its multidrug resistance activity (Bush, 2010). The production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)confers resistance at various levels to expanded spectrum cephalosporins, suchas cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and to aztreonam, but not normally to the cephamycinsand carbapenems (Mirsalehian et al.
, 2010). The emerging antibiotic resistance is aserious global problem which resulted treatment failures and increased healthcare costs. Production of beta-lactamase is the most common cause of bacterialresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The problem of metallo-beta-lactamase(MBL) production is increasing with increasing production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in hospitals.
ESBLs and MBLs production is a significant problem in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter.ESBL or MBL are also associated with a higher mortality and morbidity (Walsh etal., 2005). Plasmids are made of circular double stranded DNA molecules. Plasmidprofile analysis examines the total bacterial plasmid content.
Plasmid mediatedantibiotic resistance is common in Acinetobacterand plasmid plays an importantrole in bacterial multidrug resistance.