In the 17th century, the idea of absolutism rose to the surface in Europe. In the idea of absolutism, monarchs would grow increasingly powerful while exercising their divine right. King Louis XIII’s chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, sought to strengthen royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong centralized state. Richelieu’s successor, Jules Mazarin, sought to conserve the ideas and policies of Richelieu by establishing principles that would guide European state’s foreign policy. To consolidate power, Louis XIV used control over nobility, reorganization of government, and control over the church. By constraining the power of nobles, Louis excluded them from his council, which then further weakened their authority. He also terminated the huguenots right to practice their religion because he believed they undermined his power. To take control over the nobility, Louis devised a plan. He excluded all of them from political affairs and kept them preoccupied with court life in Versailles. By giving completely useless tasks such as dressing him in the morning, Louis awarded them with higher positions in office and larger pensions.This plan and policy created the opportunity for Louis to accumulate more power and stop the interference of the nobility. After Mazarin’s death in 1661, Louis sought to reorganize the government by breaking with tradition and declaring that he would rule without a chief minister. Immediately after assuming control of the government, Louis worked to tighten control of France and its overseas colonies. To take control over the church, Louis XIV issued the edict of Fontainebleau which then gave him the authority to order the destruction of Protestant churches, Protestant schools, and removal of Protestant clergy. This in turn stopped the Huguenots from undermining Louis power.