In the ELD curriculum
frameworks chapter four, there were five themes discussed in the reading and
they include: Meaning Making, Language Development, Effective Expression,
Content Knowledge, and Foundational Skills. In the meaning making theme, 2nd
graders are said to demonstrate increasing independence in gaining meaning from
the texts they read. Their readings should be selected with their interests in
mind, as well as relating with other curricula (social studies, science etc.)
The readings should be selected at the grade level of the students, but there
should also be readings which are more challenging to the readers to give them
the opportunity for growth. The teachers use the readings in conjunction with
strategies to facilitate literal and inferential comprehension. Teacher should
encourage discussion among peers, for meaning making purposes. The teacher
should pose text-dependent questions that include but are not limited to:
progressions in ideas, nuances in language, examining text organization,
identify purpose of text using evidence from the text. Lastly, students should
revise written work with information from their teacher and peers.

In grade two, students
are taught to describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning to a
story/song/poem. This is taught by stressing the importance of word choice, and
using strategies like; sentence level context cues, determine meaning of a word
using known prefixes, using root words as clues, using meanings of individual
words to help determine the meaning of a compound words. In the second grade,
students will begin to use dictionaries and glossaries in order to determine
the precise meaning of words and opportunities to use new vocabulary.  In other words, 2nd graders should
have many opportunities available for them to use language with both adults and
peers and learn to compare formal and informal uses of English.

Effective expression in
grade two is accomplished by helping students to become increasingly skilled at
expressing themselves through writing, discussions, and presentations.  Students at this level focus on the meaning
and messages in texts, and learn to use grade level language conventions. The
goal in writing is to advance their ability to express their thoughts and
knowledge skillfully. Children continue to learn that writing is a meaningful
act and they continue to learn about the learning process. Second graders
continue to work on their discussion skills and are given frequent
opportunities to converse about grade level texts. Prior to the second grade
students present in show and tell format or recite songs/poems. In the 2nd
grade, students begin to write their own narratives to present that include a
logical sequence, details and a conclusion. Students in the second grade use
language conventions to communicate effectively in speaking and writing. The
two language conventions used to communicate effectively in the second grade
are grammar usage in speaking and writing and capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling in writing.

Content knowledge is
expanded in the second grade because students are becoming more independent
readers and are free to read about the content of their choice. Teachers should
have an independent reading program where students can pick out books that
pique their interest. Students are learning about the world around them and it
is important to have students to write about what they read on a daily basis,
discuss and ask text-dependent questions. In addition, teachers must provide
meaningful hands on learning activities for students to expand on the concepts
from the lesson.

Foundational skills
that second graders continue to develop are phonics, word recognition skills, and
fluency with grade level text. Techniques for decoding words start with less
complex to more complex methods for decoding individual words. Activities can
include putting words together using sounds/letters and moving them around to
make a word. The teacher could pronounce a target word clearly, give students a
group of letters and have them arrange them into the correct order based on
their sound letter relationship. It is important to give students as much
exposure to letter combinations which are more unusual /ch/ sounds for example,
where the sound of the /c/ or the /h/ are not evident in the pronunciation when
the letters are combined to form words like /choose/ etc. The more students are
exposed to certain combinations of sounds they will start to remember the
patterns and apply the rules to other words. The same rules can also apply to
fluency, the more exposure to words, and patterns, the more the student will
develop fluency.

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