In the ELD curriculumframeworks chapter four, there were five themes discussed in the reading andthey include: Meaning Making, Language Development, Effective Expression,Content Knowledge, and Foundational Skills. In the meaning making theme, 2ndgraders are said to demonstrate increasing independence in gaining meaning fromthe texts they read. Their readings should be selected with their interests inmind, as well as relating with other curricula (social studies, science etc.)The readings should be selected at the grade level of the students, but thereshould also be readings which are more challenging to the readers to give themthe opportunity for growth. The teachers use the readings in conjunction withstrategies to facilitate literal and inferential comprehension. Teacher shouldencourage discussion among peers, for meaning making purposes.

The teachershould pose text-dependent questions that include but are not limited to:progressions in ideas, nuances in language, examining text organization,identify purpose of text using evidence from the text. Lastly, students shouldrevise written work with information from their teacher and peers. In grade two, studentsare taught to describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning to astory/song/poem.

This is taught by stressing the importance of word choice, andusing strategies like; sentence level context cues, determine meaning of a wordusing known prefixes, using root words as clues, using meanings of individualwords to help determine the meaning of a compound words. In the second grade,students will begin to use dictionaries and glossaries in order to determinethe precise meaning of words and opportunities to use new vocabulary.  In other words, 2nd graders shouldhave many opportunities available for them to use language with both adults andpeers and learn to compare formal and informal uses of English.Effective expression ingrade two is accomplished by helping students to become increasingly skilled atexpressing themselves through writing, discussions, and presentations.  Students at this level focus on the meaningand messages in texts, and learn to use grade level language conventions. Thegoal in writing is to advance their ability to express their thoughts andknowledge skillfully. Children continue to learn that writing is a meaningfulact and they continue to learn about the learning process.

Second graderscontinue to work on their discussion skills and are given frequentopportunities to converse about grade level texts. Prior to the second gradestudents present in show and tell format or recite songs/poems. In the 2ndgrade, students begin to write their own narratives to present that include alogical sequence, details and a conclusion. Students in the second grade uselanguage conventions to communicate effectively in speaking and writing.

Thetwo language conventions used to communicate effectively in the second gradeare grammar usage in speaking and writing and capitalization, punctuation, andspelling in writing. Content knowledge isexpanded in the second grade because students are becoming more independentreaders and are free to read about the content of their choice. Teachers shouldhave an independent reading program where students can pick out books thatpique their interest.

Students are learning about the world around them and itis important to have students to write about what they read on a daily basis,discuss and ask text-dependent questions. In addition, teachers must providemeaningful hands on learning activities for students to expand on the conceptsfrom the lesson.Foundational skillsthat second graders continue to develop are phonics, word recognition skills, andfluency with grade level text. Techniques for decoding words start with lesscomplex to more complex methods for decoding individual words. Activities caninclude putting words together using sounds/letters and moving them around tomake a word. The teacher could pronounce a target word clearly, give students agroup of letters and have them arrange them into the correct order based ontheir sound letter relationship. It is important to give students as muchexposure to letter combinations which are more unusual /ch/ sounds for example,where the sound of the /c/ or the /h/ are not evident in the pronunciation whenthe letters are combined to form words like /choose/ etc.

The more students areexposed to certain combinations of sounds they will start to remember thepatterns and apply the rules to other words. The same rules can also apply tofluency, the more exposure to words, and patterns, the more the student willdevelop fluency.

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