In their complementary forces and actions to produce

In his 2006 article,
Senge presents a framework for organisational learning. It outlines several
problems that prevent the learning process within an organisation, Senge
discusses how systems thinking which is the one discipline that binds the other
four should play an essential role in helping institutions overcome the
learning gaps through the design and implementation of new managerial



Senge suggests that we need to be part
of the world of high leaders of today, somehow we have to solve the internal
problem of organisations which Senge sees as fragmented. This world is in
continuous expansion, and there are
unprecedented demands furthermore emerging markets are added to a continual rise in the levels of production and
consumption. As the global market is interdependent, Senge claims that we must
have a different view of the work we do to survive. He attempted to illustrate
this by showing examples of many organisations who have survived and have
produced excellent results, and these institutions understood the need of
organisational learning, like Fullan (2001) mentioned the success of an
organisation is not entirely about the
people but the relationships that make the difference. Senge urges institutions
to move away from traditional methods of management originating from the top to
the bottom and which fall short of addressing changes in the knowledge society.
To achieve this an organisational change and development must require more
fluid and distributed forms of leadership (Crawford, 2005). Much like Harris
(2003) successful leaders share their vision and work together as a learning
community. In education, a dynamic ‘tinkering network’ between practitioners
and researchers is needed as suggested by
(Hargreaves 1999).

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To convince the reader about the five
‘component technologies’ of a learning organisation, Senge uses the example of
the five technologies which had to come together to enable the DC-3, a
commercial air travel and draws to the conclusion that the five technologies,
if applied separately, produce only a small, fragmented effect. However, the
power of positive change comes through their complementary forces and actions
to produce innovation.


This process in
Education will be difficult to implement as it is ineffective when all the
elements in the chain are not in place. According to Hargreaves (1999), R&D
and practitioners do not share communication; this is a challenged that can drain
Senge five principles although we always hear from practitioners and on the
media that the Education System need to be transformed and improved, the change
through hiring the best teachers and reducing class sizes, however. With the whole picture as mentioned by Senge standardisation seems to
have taken the lead with the government instructing school on how to manage the
Education sector. This  cannot only be viewed as a scientific method where a set of
theories resolve the problems,  

We should consider that cutting
complicated things into chunks sometimes produce better results and this
contradicts Senge views on the fragmented world.

Organisation success is seen or achieved
when effective leadership produce dynamic change. This is possible when an evaluation of the context is taking into
account however unrealistic leadership will only rely on the decision making

Senge developed a framework of how to
turn every institution into a vital contributor to all its stakeholders; these are five disciplines which are systems
thinking, personal mastery, mental model, team learning and personal mastery.
However, systems thinking which he refers to as the fifth discipline is the cornerstone; it integrates the other disciplines. This is underpinned by
West-Burnham (2009) work who suggest that to lead change dominant mode of learning will have to change categorically.

He goes on and suggests that
organisation need ‘metanoia’ (2006:13) a shift of mind which triggers
organisation mea culpa allowing a review of their existing system and practices
to see where improvements can be made for
future innovation. Most of our problems appear because of the lack of self-evaluation, again this seems not feasible as every piece of the puzzle
is vital however schools continue to be dictated
by external agencies and central government.


The Fifth Discipline
is one of the most used seminal
management books until today, although it was
first published in 1992. The book presents undeniable evidence which supports
the five interdependent technologies used in industry. Innovation is the key to
success required in any learning organisation, the system thinking provides the
ability to see how things work together and its effect on the institution,
although recent schools reforms are made by the government, in practice system
thinking is difficult to implement in Education. Schools need to come out of
the setting lecturing, providing quizzes and homework. Senge, unfortunately,
did not provide any empirical evidence in this literature suggesting a way of
implementing his five disciplines in Education.