Intro: 196Disregarding Einstein’s perception that “the distinctionbetween the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion”,an assumption of the existence of uniformities overtime is plausible. Ourconsciousness of uniformity is appropriately described as an assumption sinceit utilizes inductive reasoning and can not be proven with scientific method. I concur with the statement, because all newunderstanding needs prior simplistic uniformities which provide a foundationfor new knowledge to be based upon. The view that knowledge is completelyrandom is an oxymoron as it implies there is no knowledge.
Hence, some sort ofuniformity where there is a pattern or constancy is necessary for the pursuitof knowledge. The area of knowledge of ethics, in specific the ethicaluniformity of direct incest and the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights will be analyzed for the purpose of discussion.Another area of knowledge which will be explored is the arts. This section willfocus on uniformities in plays of literature, which can be be established asconventions of the dramatic genre. It is important to state that the ways ofknowing of language and imagination play a vital role in these specific areasof knowledge. Body 2: Ethics – 237Why are uniformities essential tothe knowledge of ethical behavior? There aresome universal moral codes in all cultures, whether highly industrialisedeconomies or hunter gatherer societies. One uniformity which seems to beprevalent amongst all of these is the taboo against direct incest i.
e. sexualand reproductive action between a mother and son. The occurrence of this typeof incest is extremely rare and hence it can be considered as a globaluniformity. However, Indirect incest i.e. between cross cousins and parallelcousins, does occur in some societies and is not considered a global ethicaluniformity. Uniformitiesin ethics whether they be pertinent to small societies or globally, contribute significantlytowards the existence of knowledge.
The assumption of the existence of theseethical uniformities help to keep order in societies as well as reducing theamount of chaos which may occur in the form of violence when these uniformitiesare ignored. Knowledge of the taboo of direct incest allows one to question whyit is a uniformity and why it is scorned upon in societies. This curiosity canlead to knowledge of the biological consequences and dangers of direct incestsuch as the increase of autosomal recessive disorders and severe intellectualdeficits in the offspring. Moreover, knowledge of the universal taboo of directincest can provide decision support, since ethics can be considered to be aboutdecisions when one is confronted with different situations or circumstances. Body 2 Counterargument: 277Is there a decrease in thevalue or knowledge of an ethical uniformity when it is violated? Another example of an ethical uniformity is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since there is anomnipresent conformity regarding the entitlement of all human beings regardless of age, gender, class, religion, and other features. This particulardocument was signed in 1948 by the fifty-eight members of the UN which includedthe United States of America. In Article three, the document clearly statesthat “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person” ().However, most states in America still practice capital punishment, otherwiseknown as the death penalty.
Recently, Trump has expressed his view that the NewYork terror suspect Sayfullo Saipov should receive the death penalty. Thepresident is also considering to send the suspect to Guantanamo Bay. Thispractice breaches and violates and ultimately juxtaposes the essential humanright of life which is considered as the existence of an ethical uniformity. This diminishes the once knownuniformity of the article and decreases the value of the right. Assuming thatTrump is familiar and has knowledge of the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights, the disregard of the article signifies that hisindividual principles or morals differ from the general ethical uniformity. Onecould infer that his knowledge of the rights has hindered or altered hisdecision regarding the punishment of Sayfullo Saipov, since Trump is onlyconsidering to send him to Guantanamo Bay, an example of an inconclusivethought. Ultimately, a complete and perfect uniformity in ethics is almostimpossible to achieve whether there is knowledge of the existence or noassumption or awareness at all.
Body1 AOK- ARTS (LITERATURE):306With art being theexpression of creative skill and imagination, how can the existence ofuniformities be observable in this field? A play is a form of literature and hence a constituent of the arts. Playsare categorized in specific dramatic genres depending on the prevalence ofclassic dramatic conventions. These conventions withinthe genre are assumed to be uniformities because without their constancyone could not classify plays. For example, AWoman of No Importance written by Oscar Wilde, is considered to be a strongrepresentation of a great comedy of manners. Some of the conventions of thisdramatic genre consists of satire that reflects the life of the manners andideals of upper class society, comically direct sexual dialogue, and/or adepiction that love in marriage is tedious. The presence of these dramaticconventions allows one to identify the specific genre and intention of theplay.
Normally the existence of many conventions of a particular genre, makesthe play have more of a dramatic effect on the audience. People can anticipateor predict the denouement of a play because of their prior knowledge of establishedconventions in the genre. If there were to be no classic conventions orrecurring themes, categorization would not be possible and there would be no knowledgeof what actually makes an outstanding or entertaining genre like a comedy ofmanners.
Therefore, the genre of a comedy of mannersdemonstrates that literature is based on uniformities, because the aspectsdefined in it are to be known and clear to all the readers, otherwise, knowledgeof literature would be not possible as such.Two plays that both depict specific conventions of a genre like comicallysexual dialogue are considered to be creative and imaginative because there arenumerous different ways of expressing these conventions. Regardless they arestill uniform in genre. Body 1 counterargument:TO LITERATURE 254How does society’s mentalityhinder the pursuit of knowledge regarding non-uniformcompositions of literature? Thecounterargument to uniformities in literature is based on unique authors whowere the first to write about controversial topics which have not beenmentioned before. These authors transform and modify a pattern existed whichexisted before.
To illustrate, John Cleland of 1748 wrote the novel Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, otherwise known as FannyHill. The novel presents the story of a young woman who is prostitute inthe 17th century, and through a succession of letters she describesher sexual experiences. The novel is considered to be “thefirst original English prose pornography, and the first pornography to use the formof the novel”. ().
The novel is also known to be one of the most prosecutedand forbidden in literature. Here, Cleland uphold a uniqueperspective and challenges the existingmethods/ uniformities that are used in literature by being the first to writeabout the taboo topic which utilises such an unconventional character. Society’snarrow minded disposition hinders the pursuit of knowledge by banning andprosecuting the novel, which signifies that is unavailable to most of society. Withthe assumption of the existence of uniformities in literature, it is evidentthat although they substantially add knowledge, they restrict people from adding knowledge and learning newperspectives. Even when assessing art which issubjective, the assumption of the existence of uniformities and patterns influencesour decision because it is a part of society’s subconscious reasoning andperspective. How does language as a way ofknowing support the concept of a simple uniformity? 112Language itself and the development of language as a way of knowingcould not be possible without uniformities. As determined previously,uniformities are visible through the categorization of objects, concepts etc.
whichalthough different, express characteristics which are the same. The common noun”car” represents an assortment of particulars that express some of the sametraits. For example, a Honda and aFiat are different in appearance and structure, however both subjects havewheels, which is considered to be the uniformity amongst cars. Since words in languageseem to be one of the most predominant ways of expressing and sharing knowledge,uniformities in need to exist so that confusion can be limited.