The police force is a body which comprises of
officers and has been granted the power by the state to exert the law, protect
the citizens within that jurisdiction together with their property. They are
allowed to use legitimized force that’s why they carry firearms and tasers and
are allowed to use them. The research is not about police officers but on the
whole process of policing.


The question that the research was focused on is the
change in structure of the police force. The research was able to find out that
the policing has been changing from the monopolistic set up that we inherited
from our forefathers which used to be offered by the state to one that is
currently being offered by institutions such as private companies on a commercial
basis and ones that are offered by the communities on a volunteering basis. The
research was able to find out that in America private security agents are three
times more than public officers.

The authors were trying to address the shift of
policing and how it can be better managed. The authors argue that although the
principles of policing remain constant, the environment which police operate in
has drastically undergone change. Protecting property and life, maintaining
peace, enforcing the law are functions of the police which are currently being
challenged by citizen’s expectations which have been rising through the years,
budgetary constraints and sophistication in crime has led to the need to address
this shift. E.g. 30 years ago hacking and online bullying where not possible
but currently they are more likely to encounter them in our day to day


The relevance of the research question is to try and
predict the future of policing and getting to know more about the current
policing environment we are living under. It is also important for us to be
able to understand how we can be able to handle the challenges

The authors tested their research through observation,
collecting data among others. The researchers went to neighborhoods that have organized
neighborhood watches so as to be able to understand how they work. They also
looked for statistics to know the number of private and public officers.

The variables that tend to appear in the research is
comparing the rich and poor neighborhood and also areas which are predominantly
occupied by blacks compared to those which are dominated by whites.


The research findings came up with recommendations
on how community policing ought to be conducted and the changes that should
take place. The research also was able to find the different ways of policing.


officers have not helped their cause with stereotypes, racism and human rights
violation. They have used excessive force when dealing with this future
generation aged between 18 to 35. Police work of safeguarding its citizens
regardless  of sex or age but as
witnessed when police are called to deal with house parties or any event that
deal with that said age group we see that they tend to see them as culprits
already. Male youths are viewed as likely criminals compared to their
counterparts female who are of the same age.


1.      Bayley,
D. H. (1994). Police for the future. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.



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