on the study 1, the growth of distributed database depends on the rapid
development in computer network technology. Distributed Database Management
System (DDBMS) integrated the distributed data over different database at
different locations. The security threats might happens in centralized system
or distributed system. Operating system, network system, different security
policies of system are the factors of security threat of distributed database. Security
requirements are a set of laws stated to protect the security objects which
receives and save information and security subject whose functions as database
state updating tools. Some security threats and security approaches will be
discussed in this paper.


to the paper 1, protecting database is the purpose of developing database
security. However, there are threats that should be focused on. Database
manager should identity the threats and limit the user privilege for accessing
the database. Checking authority of all the user is a must. As the breakdown of
hardware, applications or network system, it might cause the threats on loss
availability of database. Every user that can access to the database should be
assigned for required privilege only according to the position 2, 3.
Acquiring extra privilege also a threat of database security that user can
access as administrator and stunt to the weaknesses of the system. Denial of
service that can corrupt the data and cause flood to the network is needed to
pay attention on it. Inference and Identity theft are the common threats happen



on the paper 1, database security is used to prevent a database is used under
unwitting condition. There are a few types of information security 4, 5.
Firstly, there is an authority process checking of a user who use or access
into the database system is called access control. The second type is auditing
which is used to analyze the security violation and collect the analysis of
database from modification of attackers. The third types of security is
authentication which is a confirmation process of identifying and
authenticating the user to use the database system. The fourth types of
security is encryption. Encryption is a transformation of plaintext to cipher text
that is needed to be encrypted or decrypted using specific algorithms.


and outcomes

are five methods to maintain security and privacy of the DDBMS which has been
connected through computer network. Firstly, access control based security is
categorized as Discretionary control (DAC) models, Mandatory access control
(MAC) models and Role-based access control (RBAC) models. DAC is used to store
the access control matrix. MAC is used to disclose the unauthorized of database
and provide protection on illegal modification. RBAC is gives support on
arbitrary and specific organization security policies. Next, trust based
security approaches which focuses on the security of utility 6. The purpose
of develop trust environment is for identity checking of the users. Based on
symmetric key cryptography, kerbores is used as a lightweight protocol 6,
7.  There is an agent based approach
that monitor the user action via neural network. Node registry and Service
Level Agreements should be implement to enhance the trust in DDBMS 8. The
third method is authentication based security. Two factors authentication
should be splitted into three factor to increase the security 9. The fourth
method is cryptography based approaches which is encrypted the plaintext to
cipher text with the help of cryptographic algorithm. DNA based cryptography
and DNA Cryptography maintain the data confidentiality and integrity but they
need technology in advance in order to reach the mature stage. There is some
other security approaches. The Role Ordering (RO) and CORBA based
authentication security model have been developed to protect and enhance the
security of DDBMS.




Database security is
a critical problem of total system. In this study, there are a few possible
threats of database security and different techniques that are conducive for
future generation in order to increase the security of DDBMS have been
discussed. The purpose of this study is to analyze different security. Due to
the rapid growth of the technology, database security is still an important
field to be examined. 


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