IntroductionBasedon the study 1, the growth of distributed database depends on the rapiddevelopment in computer network technology. Distributed Database ManagementSystem (DDBMS) integrated the distributed data over different database atdifferent locations. The security threats might happens in centralized systemor distributed system. Operating system, network system, different securitypolicies of system are the factors of security threat of distributed database. Securityrequirements are a set of laws stated to protect the security objects whichreceives and save information and security subject whose functions as databasestate updating tools. Some security threats and security approaches will bediscussed in this paper. TheoryAccordingto the paper 1, protecting database is the purpose of developing databasesecurity.

However, there are threats that should be focused on. Databasemanager should identity the threats and limit the user privilege for accessingthe database. Checking authority of all the user is a must.

As the breakdown ofhardware, applications or network system, it might cause the threats on lossavailability of database. Every user that can access to the database should beassigned for required privilege only according to the position 2, 3.Acquiring extra privilege also a threat of database security that user canaccess as administrator and stunt to the weaknesses of the system. Denial ofservice that can corrupt the data and cause flood to the network is needed topay attention on it. Inference and Identity theft are the common threats happenfrequently. LiteraturereviewBasedon the paper 1, database security is used to prevent a database is used underunwitting condition.

There are a few types of information security 4, 5.Firstly, there is an authority process checking of a user who use or accessinto the database system is called access control. The second type is auditingwhich is used to analyze the security violation and collect the analysis ofdatabase from modification of attackers. The third types of security isauthentication which is a confirmation process of identifying andauthenticating the user to use the database system. The fourth types ofsecurity is encryption. Encryption is a transformation of plaintext to cipher textthat is needed to be encrypted or decrypted using specific algorithms.

 Resultand outcomesThereare five methods to maintain security and privacy of the DDBMS which has beenconnected through computer network. Firstly, access control based security iscategorized as Discretionary control (DAC) models, Mandatory access control(MAC) models and Role-based access control (RBAC) models. DAC is used to storethe access control matrix. MAC is used to disclose the unauthorized of databaseand provide protection on illegal modification.

RBAC is gives support onarbitrary and specific organization security policies. Next, trust basedsecurity approaches which focuses on the security of utility 6. The purposeof develop trust environment is for identity checking of the users. Based onsymmetric key cryptography, kerbores is used as a lightweight protocol 6,7.  There is an agent based approachthat monitor the user action via neural network. Node registry and ServiceLevel Agreements should be implement to enhance the trust in DDBMS 8. Thethird method is authentication based security. Two factors authenticationshould be splitted into three factor to increase the security 9.

The fourthmethod is cryptography based approaches which is encrypted the plaintext tocipher text with the help of cryptographic algorithm. DNA based cryptographyand DNA Cryptography maintain the data confidentiality and integrity but theyneed technology in advance in order to reach the mature stage. There is someother security approaches. The Role Ordering (RO) and CORBA basedauthentication security model have been developed to protect and enhance thesecurity of DDBMS.     ConclusionDatabase security isa critical problem of total system. In this study, there are a few possiblethreats of database security and different techniques that are conducive forfuture generation in order to increase the security of DDBMS have beendiscussed.

The purpose of this study is to analyze different security. Due tothe rapid growth of the technology, database security is still an importantfield to be examined. 

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