INTRODUCTION Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recentyears due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions andgovernment policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization.This study analyze the overview landscape, trends of PV technology, challengesand potential globally and within the economic and technology constraints. Itis also discussed about the 3rd generation high efficiency solar cell withadvanced concepts and new approach of breaking the 31 % efficiency limits.Lastly, it is described the opportunity of solar PV in the realization of solarenergy’s access and affordability to ensure continuous growth of solar greenenergy as an affordable renewable energy source.
CHAPTER 11.0 An overview landscape The Sun is a dependable,non-polluting plus infinite source of energy. From the time when the beginningof life on world, the energy that was received by all living forms wastransmitted from the sun. It is the period now when the mankind is on aperspective to again depend and rely upon the sun as the primary source ofenergy.Solar energy is the utilization of the radiant energy as ofthe Sun. Solar power is frequently utilized traded by way of solar energy butrefers extra particularly towards the conversion of sunlight into electricity,either by photovoltaics as well as concentrating solar thermal devices, or byone of several investigational technologies such as thermoelectric converters,solar chimneys and solar ponds.Solar energy plus shading are essential considerations inbuilding design.
Thermal mass is utilized in the direction of conserve the heatthat sunshine delivers towards the entire buildings. Daylighting strategiesoptimize the utilize of light in buildings. Solar water heaters heat swimmingpools and provide domestic hot water. In agriculture, green houses extendrising seasons and pumps powered by solar cells (also known as photovoltaics)provide water for grazing animals. Evaporation lakes are used to harvest saltand clean waste streams of contaminants. Solar energy is the speediestdeveloping form of energy production.
In the midst of fast increase in energy costs, concern overpollution, reduction of resources and environment degradation the consciousnessfor inadequate resources around the earth has increased dramatically. Utilizeof fossil fuels which causes green house emissions, ineffective use of energyand let go of dangerous pollutants towards the environment causing threat suchas acidic rain necessity be addressed critically in new buildings. Governmentsby way of vision comprise come to realise that generation of electrical powerthrough non renewable sources of energy is not enough. The power of the futuremust be ecologically friendly as well.Solar refining as well as sanitization methods createpotable water intended for millions of population around the world.
Family-scale solar cookers plus larger solar kitchens concentrate sunlightintended for cooking, drying in addition to pasteurization. Clotheslines are acommon application of solar energy.Further sophisticated concentrating technologies enlarge therays of the Sun designed for high-temperature material testing, metals meltingas well as manufacturing chemical production.
A vary of prototype solarvehicles give ground, air plus sea transportation.Photovoltaic is a method by which energy commencing the suncan take place directly utilized for power generation. This technique forelectricity generation causes no environmental pollution, has no rotating ormoving parts, in addition to causes no material running down. Photovoltaics arealso multifunctional. It can produce and operate lights, pump water, operateany house hold equipments and appliances, can manage a few electrical gadgets pluscommunication equipment. The photovoltaic finds its wide application in ruralcommunity electrification in the developing countries and electricitygeneration for the buildings, commercial regions and industrial zone in cities. Around the world development of photovoltaics has been anexponential curve between 2007–2017.
At some stage in this period of phase,photovoltaics (PV), also recognized as solar PV, advanced from a niche marketof minor range applications to a standard electricity resource. While solar PVsystems were primary recognized as a capable renewable energy innovation,programs, such as feed-in tariffs, were executed by a number of governments inorder to supply economic incentives for investments. Intended for a few years,development was principally focused by Japan and pioneering European countries.As a result, cost of solar declined radically due to Experience curve impactslike enhancements in innovation and economies of scale.Experience curves illustrate so as to the cost of a thingdiminishes by the sum-total ever produced. PV development expanded even morefast after production of solar cells in addition to modules begun to incline upin the USA with their Million Solar Roofs project, and after renewables wereincluded to China’s 2011 five-year-plan for energy production1.
From the timewhen , deployment of photovoltaics has picked up momentum on a worldwide range,especially in Asia but as well in North America and other regions, where solarPV by 2015–17 was progressively competing among conventional energy sources asgrid parity has already been come to in about 30 countries2. Projections intended for photovoltaic progress arecomplicated as well as burdened with a lot of instabilities. Officialorganizations, such as the International Energy Agency reliably expanded theirestimates above the years, but still knock down short of actualdeployment3-6.Historically, the United States was the pioneer of installedphotovoltaics designed for many years, and its total capacity summed to 77megawatts in 1996—more than several other country in the globe at the phase.Then, Japan was the world’s leader of produced solar electricity inanticipation of 2005, after Germany took the lead and by 2016 had a capacity ofmore than 40 gigawatts. In any case, in 2015, China became world’s largestmanufacturer of photovoltaic power.
789 China was expected to remain itsquick progress and to triple its PV capacity to 70 gigawatts by 20171011. By the end of 2016, cumulative photovoltaic capacity come toconcerning 302 gigawatts (GW), approximate to be enough to provide between 1.3%and 1.8% of worldwide electricity demand.
79 Solar contributed 8%, 7.4% and7.1% to the respective yearly domestic consumption in Italy, Greece andGermany.5 Installed worldwide capacity was proposed to additional than doubleor even triple to more than 500 GW between 2016 and 2020.2 By 2050, solarpower was predictable to turn out to be the world’s main source of electricity,with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16% and 11%,correspondingly. This would necessitate PV capacity to grow to 4,600 GW, ofwhich more than half was prediction to be conveyed in China and India.2 1.3 Challenges and potential globally and within theeconomic and technology constraintsThe greatest challenge to Solar Energy faces nowadays is thesubstitute conventional energy sources that are cheaper in conditions ofutilization measures (dollar per KWh).
Electricity produced from Solar Energy iscostlier compared to that created commencing coal-fired power plants.Government and enterprises are functioning on creating cheaper solar cells todecrease cost of utilization. Even though the price of Solar Photovoltaictechnology has diminished in the last years, it is still not a possibleresolution for huge range power generation purposes.
In US, the average cost ofPhotovoltaic modules is around 0.0311553USD lc/KWh and the price of electricitygeneration of electricity from Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermal route iswithin the range of 0.186933USD—0.311565USD per kWh and 0.155684USD -0.233527USD per kWh correspondingly. The electricity produced this manner isfour-five times costlier as of that produced from conventional sources.
Progression in innovation is necessary to decrease this space. The manufacturing procedure requirements to be extra cost-effective from the time when the Solar Photovoltaic conversion of electricityis a high-technology procedure insistent high rank of abilities and skill.Companies are designating exclusive reserves for investigation and expansion inthe industry to persuade innovations to make better the process. From the timewhen the field is a generally new one with less knowledge in the field, newcompanies face challenges in adapting up by the existing players in the field.There are a small number of places which do not obtain an adequate amount solarenergy all over the year, which influences the cost of production.
Regionswhich receive huge amounts of rainfall and are clouded for the majority partsof the year, automatically acquire ruled out as prospective sites for SolarEnergy generation. One more main challenge so as to solar energy faces isstorage space of the generated power. Electricity from Photovolatic cellscannot be generated during the night and during cloudy days and thereforeappropriate way have to be adopted to store up the energy created during theother times of the day. One more major inconvenience is that approach on ashort term basis cannot be predicted. Away from each other of this readilyavailable are seasonal variations which cause the supply and demand to expandout of phase. It is consequently necessity that Solar Energy cannot be dependedupon as the only source of electricity for potential uses like space heating,till proper storage measures are invented.
It is also hard to store energy asit also increments the price of manufacture and installation. Only in the pastthis issue gets resolved can solar energy actually compete with other existentsources of energy.ENVIRONMENTAL COSTSDue to lack of proper government control ,native governmentand people are skeptical concerning the effect that setting up of big solarpower plants will have on the individuals and environment. A big scale solarpower plant ordinarily requires about one square kilometer for each 20-60MWgenerated.
RAW MATERIAL AND WASTE PRODUCTSA number of the materials ( like Cadmium) utilized meant forcreating Solar PV cells are dangerous and other raw materials like plasticsutilized for the packaging of the cells are non-biodegradable, subsequentlyaffecting the environment. Even though some of the waste created at some stagein the manufacturing process is biodegradable (silicon), not all othermaterials are biodegradable and disposal of the same is a challenging process. AESTHETICS AND DESIGNAn additional obstacle to more extensive selection of solarcell and solar module products and systems in the middle of commercial andhousing consumers is aesthetics and design. Consumers have stood up to solarproducts for aesthetic reasons.
Built up solar products are heavy, rigid,easily broken and non-modular. Solar cell and solar module manufacturers canmake better aesthetics by creating products that can be more attractivelyincorporated into building structures, and so as to lighter, flexible and modular and hence morefeasible. CHAPTER 2 2.
0 3rd generation high efficiency solar cell with advancedconcept and new approach breaking the 31% efficiency limits Third generation photovoltaics (PVs) endeavor to radicallydecrease the price of solar energy lower than the current level of approximately$1/Watt to a lesser amount of$0.20/Watt 14. Worldwide power generation of PVsis more than 5 GW as well as the whole industry is developing over 25% per year15. A combination of expanded energy prices and fears above global warmingare approaching up demand for PVs. PVs propose a near boundless source ofcarbon neutral energy that might ease both problems at the same time 16.
The huge mainstream of solar cells lying on the market aresingle junction silicon devices acknowledged collectively as first generationdevices. Thermodynamics on a very basic level limit their energy conversionefficiency among 31% and 41% depending on the concentration of incomingsunlight 15. This is acknowledged as the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit.Fig. 1 shows the origin of the majority of the efficiencylosses.
Appearing in this case, (14) represents photons with energies less thanthe bandgap of the device that are not absorbed (“red losses”) and (15)represents photons with energies more than the bandgap which lose this overloadenergy as heat (“blue losses”). Since the sun is a polychromatic source oflight, fixing the bandgap gives a tradeoff between these two losses. Efficiencycapacity are usually obtained under AM 1.5 solar conditions that recreate the spectraldistribution of sunlight below a specified atmospheric condition.Third generation PVs are intended to combine the advantagesof both the primary and subsequent generation devices. Specifically, thisassessment paper will concentrate on attempts to get better the efficiency ofPVs more than the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit throughout the subsequentfour methods: multi junction cells, intermediate-band cells, hot carrier cellsand spectrum conversion. A number of these concepts are as of now obtainable incommercial products while some have only scant experimental proof.
They allultimately contribute to the same promise of reducing the price per watt of PVsto a point where they can form a large portion of the world’s energy supply. Figure 1 (online color at: www.lpr-journal.org) A diagramshowing the primary losses in solar cells adopted from 1. (14) Incomingphotons with energies below the bandgap (labeled as Eg) are not absorbed. (15)Incoming photons with energy in excess of the bandgap are absorbed but theelectrons and holes will relax to the conduction band minimum (CBM) / valenceband maximum (VBM) by producing phonons (represented by dashed lines).
(16)Electrons and holes can recombine with the help of electronic states within thebandgap. These states are typically defects or impurity atoms and therecombination event produces phonons. (16) Electrons and holes can alsorecombine radiatively and produce a photon with an energy equal to the bandgap.Unlike 1, 2, and 3, this radiated energy is not necessarily lost as thesephotons can be reabsorbed. However, photons emitted from the front of the cellback towards the incoming sunlight are lost forever and ultimately restrict themaximum efficiency of the cells.
Figure 2 (online color at: www.lpr-journal.org) The AM 1.5spectrum is the standard used to determine the efficiency of solar cells.
Thespectrum represents, for a given location and atmospheric conditions on earth,the intensity and spectral distribution of incoming sunlight. Also displayedare the bandgaps of a select number of solar cell materials. For a singlejunction, the most efficient cells have a bandgap between 1.1 eV and 1.
4 eVthat includes Si, InP and GaAs. A wide array of bandgaps is available byalloying different semiconductors with each other.Multi-junction solar cells as of now have producedefficiencies over 40% and are commercially produced. The main hold-up forexpanding production of these cells is their restrictive costs.
Nevertheless,new technologies combined with concentration technology might overcome thisissue. Intermediate-band solar cells as well as hot carrier cells assuresimilar efficiency enhancements and yet lower costs than multi-junction cells.In any case, no cells have to this date exhibited efficiency surpassing theShockley-Queisser efficiency boundary. Finally, spectrum conversiontechnologies propose a simple way of improving efficiencies that is compatiblewith existing solar cell technologies. CHAPTER 3 3.0 Opportunity of solar PV in the realization of solarenergy’s access and affordability . One of the majoritycommon systems utilized to harness solar energy is a small-scale rooftop-basedsolar photovoltaic system.
Solar capturing panels are located on top of theroof of a house, building, or business, and then feeds collected energy to aconversion system. Even just a small system used to be incredibly costly, but prices have declined significantly overthe past few years. As of 2010 to 2013, prices for rooftop-based V systemsretain dropped more than 9%, and this includes installation costs7When you combine falling installation costs with the assureof tax credits and money saved on energy bills, you have no deficiency ofreasons to get included10. The majority states offer tax credits, discounts,grants, and more that could decrease the total cost of a rooftop-based PVsystem to below $10,000.
In addition, consumers are able to finance these coststhrough leasing agreements and power purchase contracts, the latter of whichrequires them to continue using the system for an expanded interval of time atfixed rates.At the same time as this is all great information forconsumers who are looking to power their homes, it doesn’t offer to a greatextent for business owners who for the most part have larger structures withhigher demands. The good news is that large-scale PV systems have also droppedin cost, more so than household ones.
In fact, large-scale systems are anaverage of 60 percent lower in price than residential solar systems if you takea look at the per-wattage costs15.Concentrated solar power systems (a way that uses mirrors todirect thermal energy) are to a great extent more costly and have not seen thesimilar reduction in prices, but they have one particular benefit over theother two types. CV systems can be utilized to store the sun’s energy as theycollect heat, which implies they are still capable of creating electricitywhile there’s no sunlight.
Solar energy’s accessibility makes is an fundamental tool indeveloping countries, where 1.3 billion population do not have grid access. Forthese communities, stand-alone solar systems are single method of accessingelectricity in rural areas.They allow remote villages to benefit from groundwaterpumping for drinking water and irrigation, telecommunications systems such asradio, television and cell phones, and appliances like refrigerators and sewingmachines.It can be very useful to combine solar with other sources ofenergy in countries that rely heavily on fuels to generate electricity. Using asolar-diesel hybrid lowers consumption and maintains generator availability.The cost of the solar installation is therefore offset in just a few years.