`Introduction less energy and water, and provision of


Traditionally buildings are expected to meet the building
code requirements but the green buildings are expected to perform more by
reducing their impact on the environment. The design, construction, and
management of a green building project are different from those of a
traditional construction project. When stakeholders are approaching building a
green house, more emphasis is given to the whole life-cycle of the building and
its elements , consumption of less energy and water, and provision of better
user satisfaction (Glavinich, 2008). This means that a greenhouse should aim at
satisfying client needs during operation by reducing cost of  energy and the building should operate
efficiently and effectively during its existence. (Hwang and Tan,2012)
recommended that professionals’ green building knowledge and experience should
be enhanced to keep them updated with the evolving information for successful
green building project delivery. Learning from experience on projects encourages people to
learn and to embed that learning into continuous improvement of project
management practices (Kerzner, 2013). This means that in order to remain green,
people should adopt new technologies which will help to enhance the aspects of
a green building.

Kerzner, H.R. (2013), Project Management: A Systems Approach
to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, John Wiley & Sons.


T.E. (2008), Contractor’s Guide to Green Building Construction: Management,
Project Delivery, Documentation, and Risk Reduction, John Wiley and Sons,
Hoboken, NJ.

B.-G. and Tan, J.S. (    2012),
“Sustainable project management for green construction: challenges, impact and
solutions”, World Construction Conference – Global Challenges in Construction
Industry, Colombo, June 28-30, pp. 171-179.

Definitions of a green

Green building is a comprehensive approach to design that
enhances a building’s efficiency throughout its life cycle. The
building structure is designed to consider building as a whole and
examine how its various subsystems function together to save energy and reduce
environmental impact. Techniques such as using recyclable materials,
collecting rain water for nondrinking uses, aligning buildings to take
advantage of drainage and daylight, and using renewable energy sources are all
design components and innovations that provide energy savings over a
structure’s life cycle. (Dean August 2007: p 24-31)

Green building is a new ecology of sustainable design, which
brings comfortable physical surrounding to its occupants. The purpose of green
building in Taiwan is to build ecological, energy saving, waste reduction and
health habitats for our living environment (Taiwan Architecture and building
center, 2008).

Taiwan Architecture & Building Center. (2008). Taiwan
Architecture Building Center. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from

Dean, B. (2007). Save green by building green. Bank
News, 107(8), 24-24,31. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/205934681?accountid=167317

founder of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the United
States Green Building Council, described green building as the “design and
construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative
impact of buildings on the environment and occupants in five broad areas: 1.
sustainable site planning, 2. safeguarding water and water efficiency, 3.
energy efficiency and renewable energy, 4. conservation of materials and
resources, and 8 5. indoor environmental quality”

Aroul, R. R. (2009). Going green – impact on
residential property values (Order No. 1467938). Available from
ProQuestCentral. (305175096). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/305175096?accountid=167317


Green building is a building that is deliberately designed to
minimise impact on the environment and to maximise impact on the environment
and to maximise efficiency when using resources such as materials, water and
energy; and to maintain this efficiency over the lifecycle of the building.
(McMullan: 2012, p,318). In practical this means a green building is designed in
order to reduce the negative impact of a building on the environment and guard
against depletion of available natural resources over its life.

McMullan, S(2012). Environmental Science in          Building 7th Ed. United
Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.

As an essential component of sustainability green building
seek to provide healthy environment in a resource efficient manner using
ecological based principles. Ching (2008)

Ching, F.D.K (2008). Building Construction Illustrated 4th
Ed. Canada: John Willey and Sons

Green Buildings are buildings of any usage category that
subscribe to the principle of a conscientious handling of natural resources.
Bauen, M., Mosle, P and Schwarz,M (2007). This means
reducing the negative environmental impact of a building as possible, reducing
the environmental hazard as possible by using materials that are environmental
friendly, indoor solutions that facilitate communication, low energy
requirements, renewable energy use reducing the use of non-renewable energy
that may extinct with increasing usage and also enhancing economical operation.

M., Mosle, P and Schwarz,M (2007) Green building-Guidebook for Sustainable
Architecture. Germany: Callwey Verlay, Munich.

Green building
practices used on construction sites

The field of green technology encompasses a continuously evolving group of
methods and materials, from techniques for generating energy to non-toxic
cleaning products (Yusof, and Mydin, Jul-Sep 2014 p, 115-122.). The present expectation is
that this field will bring innovation and changes in daily life of similar magnitude
to the “information technology” explosion over the last two decades. In these
early stages, it is impossible to predict what green technology may eventually
encompass. (Yusof and Mydin, M. A. O. Jul-Sep 2014 p, 115-122).  The goals that inform developments in this rapidly
growing field include

Sustainability – meeting the needs of society in ways that can continue
indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources.
In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.

 ? „Cradle to cradle” design – ending the
„cradle to grave” cycle of manufactured products, by creating products that can
be fully reclaimed or re-used. ? Source reduction – reducing waste and
pollution by changing patterns of production and consumption.

 ? Innovation – developing alternatives to
technologies – whether fossil fuel or chemical intensive agriculture – that
have been demonstrated to damage health and the environment.

Viability – creating a center of economic activity around technologies and
products that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation and
creating new careers that truly protect the planet. Sustainable development is
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs this is a common
definition of the sustainable that been use all wide world (Dennler 2007). In
other word sustainability is the approach in which development that provide to
ensure the need of today generation but not forgetting the need of future
generation. The benefit of sustainability and green technologies is divided to
three components, which are environment, social and economic.

Yusof, S. H., and Mydin, M. A. O. (2014). SOLAR INTEGRATED
ENERGY SYSTEM FOR GREEN BUILDING. Acta Technica Corviniensis – Bulletin
of Engineering, 7(3), 115-122. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1547946943?accountid=167317


of LEED and green building technologies

Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) is a rating system used to evaluate and accredit energy ef?ciency
and sustainable design features of new and renovated buildings (Hawke, 2010).
It is established and reated by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), the LEED
rating systems are developed through an open, consensus-based process led by
committees. The
LEED rating system recognizes performance in ?ve areas:

 -Sustainable site selection and development

 -Water ef?ciency

-Energy and atmosphere

 -Materials and resources

-And indoor environmental quality.

Which I think this are the essential
elements of a green building which I think sustainable site selection and
development will help to reduce use of energy and locate a building in the
environment in which its operations will be enhanced by the natural environment
in which it is going to be constructed to reduce use of non-sustainable energy
sources. A building which is water efficiency will minimise the use of water in
our country as Botswana has a problem of water shortage. Energy and atmosphere
I think it rat the building based on how to use energy in such a way that does
not pollute the environment in which we live in. Based on materials and
resources I think the main aim of LEED is to use construction materials which
are environmentally friendly which can be recycled after usage and their
disposal are not going to pollute the environment. My perception based on
indoor and environmental quality, I think it enhance the environment of the
interior of a building so that it reduce usage of electricity by controlling
the temperature of a building by using construction methods that regulate the
temperature of a building, like use of double walls and green roofs.
Nevertheless, I will further go into details of the following ratings of LEED
to get what they mean by them.


Sustainable site selection and

Green roofs are partially or completely
covered with vegetation and a growing medium and planted over a waterproo?ng
membrane. Green roofs absorb rainwater, provide insulation, create a habitat
for wildlife, and help to reduce the air temperatures of a building by
mitigating the heat island effect. They can also add to the aesthetic appeal of
the building. Re?ective roofs use materials with high solar re?ective indexes
to help reduce the building’s heat island effect. Both of these technologies
are normally used in residential projects but they can also be used in
commercial buildings. Storm water management is an important consideration for
any building project and this can also help to conserve water in Botswana as
water is a scarce resource. Use of permeable pavement and grid pavers assist
with management of storm water runoff, particularly in parking lots. Rain
gardens, vegetated swales, and constructed wetlands reduce imperviousness and
allow rainwater to reabsorb into the ground. Rainwater can also be collected
for landscape irrigation, toilet and urinal ?ushing, and custodial uses. These
features can also be highlighted in education campaigns because they are easily
scalable and transferable to residential, commercial, and public properties.
(Barnes, 2012)




Hawke, B. (2010), “Sustainable
libraries: report back on a study visit to public libraries in the USA, Canada
& Australia”, The New Zealand Library & Information Management Journal,
Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 24-40.


Water efficiency

This reduce potable water use by considering alternative
on-site water sources, for example by using rainwater, storm water and
greywater for custodial uses and toilet and urinal ?ushing. These technologies
can be used both in residential and commercial buildings.