IntroductionAnorexiaNervosa, one of the most common eating disorders, is a mental health conditionthat restricts the amount of food a person eats because they see themselves asoverweight even though in reality their weight is so low that their health isin danger. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa are such a major issue intoday’s society due to the stereotypical views of men and women. Anorexianervosa usually starts developing around the ages of 16 to 17 years old. The NationalAssociation of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders states thatapproximately eight million people in the U.

S suffer from Anorexia Nervosa,bulimia and related eating disorders. This illness affects several peoplebecause society drives them to be self-conscious about their bodies. Many girlsand women are affected by this because they are afraid of being fat.   Types of Anorexia NervosaA person that suffers from anorexia nervosahas a distorted perspective of their body and may have a dread of putting onweight.Their distraction with nourishment andweight may turn into a fixation that extremely influences what and how theyeat. They will make extreme rules and limitations to their diets. There are 2 major types of anorexianervosa.

Both of these types display similar symptoms such as abnormal eatingand fear of weight gain.The 2 major types are:1.      Restrictive type:  People with this type of anorexia will set severerestrictions on the amount and type of food they eat. This includes fasting,counting calories, skipping meals and sometimes excessive exercise.2.      Bingeeating/ purging type: People with this type of anorexia alsoplace restriction on their foods. But this type is accompanied by binge eatingor purging.

Binge eating is when a person eats a large amount of food in ashort period of time. This person then gets rid of this food by purging.Purging is accomplished by vomiting or using laxatives and diuretics. Laxativeis a drug that loosens stools and increases bowel movement.

Diuretics, alsoknown as water pills, are drugs that help your kidney get rid of extra waterand salt from your body through urinating. Causes and Effects of Anorexia NervosaCauses:Theprecise causes of anorexia nervosa are not known. As with bulimia, addictionand other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa entails complex interactions amongbiological, social and psychological factors.Aperson with a parent or sibling that suffers from an eating disorder is athigher risk at suffering from an eating disorder themselves.Commonexamples distinguished in anorexics are:·        Lowself-esteem, which may have been caused by experiences of childhood trauma.·        Perfectionism·        Lowlevels of serotonin, one of the brain chemicals involved in depression.

Society is also one of the biggest causesof eating disorders. Society has a tendency to drive teenagers to self-consciousnessdue to the constant stream of social media reinforcing thinness as an idealbody image for girls. Magazines, billboards and televisions are packed withphotos of unrealistically slim models, athletes, actresses and actors.Effects: Theeffect anorexia nervosa has on the body is very damaging. Anorexia affects themind and the body.

Because of the lack of the right nutrients and caloriesneeded for the body to function, the body starts to wear down gradually. Withtime organs may stop working, and if that’s not treated quickly it may lead tocertain death. Someof the effects of anorexia nervosa are:·        Lossof connection to faith or religion·        Isolationfrom family and friends·        Suicide·        Forcedwithdrawal from school·        Shutdownof major body systems ·        Braindamage ·        Heartattacks·        Death·        Infertility(inabilityto conceive children)·        Womenwill often stop having their menstrual cycles Accordingto the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders “5-10%of anorexics die within 10 years after contracting the disease; 18-20% ofanorexics will be dead after 20 years and only 30-40% ever fully recover” The Signs and Symptoms of Anorexia NervosaThe chance at recovering from an eatingdisorder increases the earlier the eating disorder is detected.

Consequently,it is crucial to be privy to some of the warning signs and symptoms of aneating disorder. 1.      Physical signs:·        Extremeweight loss·        Feelingcold all the time ·        Dentalproblems such as cavities and tooth sensitivities ·        Dryskin ·        Brittlenails ·        Finehair on body (lanugo)·        Thinningof hair·        Muscleweakness  2.      Emotional and Behavioral signs:·        Socialwithdrawal ·        Denialof hunger·        Fearof gaining weight ·        Preoccupationwith food·        Refusalto eat·        Irritability·        Vomitingor laxative abuse after eating.

·        Persistentbelief that they are fat even though they are not. TheDifference between Dieting and Anorexia NervosaWhile both dieters and those with anorexiaare worried about losing weight, that’s where the similarities end. There aremajor differences among the two, from their goals, eating habits and exercisingbehaviors. The goals of a diet would probably include the following:·        Improvinggeneral health·        Avoidingdiseases such as diabetes·        Improvingmuscle tone and strength ·        Wantingto reduce intake of unhealthy food  While these goals are for those who aredieting, anorexics only want to lose weight. They are not concerned with theirhealth, they just want to be thin.

Their motive is often connected to anunhealthy body image.A person on a healthy diet monitors caloricintake on the other hand anorexics simply do not eat, they see every calorie asan enemy.   HistoryThe term anorexia nervosa was firstestablishes by Sir William Gull in 1873. At first, he introduced the conditionas Aspepsia hysterica, then to Anorexia hysterica and then to Anorexia nervosa. Miss A                            Miss B   In 1873, Sir William Gull published his original work “Anorexia Nervosa(Apepsia Hysterica, Anorexia Hysterica)”,in which he talks about the three cases of Miss A, Miss B, and a third unnamedcase. And in 1887, he recorded the case of Miss k, which was his last medicalpaper to be published.

Sir William Gull observed that slow pulse and breathingseemed to be common factors in all the cases he had observed.TreatmentsIn some cases, treatmentincludes seeing a doctor and having regular therapy sessions. It has been shownthat family based treatments are more successful than individual therapysessions for people that suffer from anorexia nervosa. A hospital stay isneeded for anorexics that are extremely underweight. Diet is the most importantelement to work on in people with anorexia nervosa.

Starting slow with thecalories, and increasing at a measured pace. Point of view of a formeranorexic:  “I spent a year living in hospital, fightingmy eating disorder. It was by far the hardest year of my life, but withoutit I would not be here anymore. It was hard work, and every meal was a battle.I would sit there: a plate of food placed in front of me, and be told Ihad 30 minutes to eat it. With tears streaming down my face I felt completelylost at the thought of eating, but after the first few meals, things did geteasier. I began to concentrate on what I wanted from life; a family, to travel;university; when I had bad days I would concentrate on this.

I began to realizethat if I ate a meal, the nurses, and my family wouldn’t automatically think Iwas okay. I began to talk about things, about how I felt after a meal and itdid get easier. My family and friends began to understand that havinganorexia is not just a physical thing and about putting on weight but there isso much more to recovery.” (Hope, 2015)ConclusionIn conclusion, anorexianervosa greatly impacts all which are touched by it. Not only does the personwho suffers from it struggle, but also the anorexic’s relatives.

The mostimportant thing that someone can do for a person that suffers from this eatingdisorder is to help them through it and seek medical attention. Support fromfamily and friends make it better and easier for the anorexic to get through theeating disorder. If someone you know hasanorexia, please encourage them to get help to treat their eating disorder. Youcan also contact the National Eating Disorders Association helpline forsupport, resources and treatment options for yourself or a loved one. (1-800-931-2237)

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