INTRODUCTION The composition of milk varies according to the mammal it comes from,providing the correct growth rate and development of a young of a species, thusfor human infant, human milk is obviously more suitable than infant formula.
Over the years since the early1960’s studies have been increasingly published to show components thatprovides the infant with excessive nutrition, moreover breast milk also widelyrecognised as a biological fluid required for optimum infant development andgrowth, the Colostrum found in breastmilk is the main component that is essential for all the recognisedfunctionality of breast milk .Published studies in JAMA pedantries show thatthe longer the infant consumes breast milk the more intelligent they become whenthey grow up.The colostrum also helps manage infants with chronic diarrhoea, In 8/10of children with chronic diarrhoea ranging from 9 to 3 years of age E COLI waspresent in all 8 cases , ASCARTISLAMBRICOIDIS in 4 cases and GIADIA LAMBIA in one , Health Organisation also published that optimum breastfeeding can savethe lives of over 820000 children under the age of 5 years. Breast feeding isalso a source of energy and nutrition for children aged 6 to 23 months during illness of infants it also reducesmortality among children who are malnourished, thus babies whom are fed breastmilk are less likely to be overweight or obese. Globally,only 38% of infants are exclusively breastfed and Botswana’s extensivebreastfeeding rates stands at 20%.Decision to breastfeeding is widely influencedby many factors, they can be of maternal factors e.g.
, stress anxiety maydecrease production and milk ejection reflex, separation of mother and child(e.g. return to work or school), hormonal imbalance (thyroid gland, polycysticovary and diabetes type one and two). Other factors can be the infant factorse.g. baby refusing the nipple due to it being large (flat nipple), babysleeping for long periods or does not wake up (prematurity, certainmedication). But mostly healthy mothers tend to breast feed their babies breastmilk because it is cheap, and helps the child and the mother to connect. Infantformula was created by a scientist called Justus von Liebig in the 1800’s, itwas made as a substitute or supplement for human milk for mothers who chose notto breast feed or cannot do so exclusively.
It was also created for infantswhom breastfeeding is medically unfit or those with born error of metabolismInfant formulas manufactured to mimic the nutritional composition of human milkfor the growth and development of infants.Theseformulas are made from cow’s milk and soy milk. Soy milk based formulas aremade from soy proteins with added vegetable oil corn syrup and sucrose(forcarbohydrates) which are made for infants who are lactose intolerant toallergic to the whole protein in cow’s milk and milk based formulas. 2. HUMAN MILKHuman milkconsists of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other nutrients with many morebioactive molecules. Babies who are fed breast milk tend to grow faster moreintelligent than those who are fed instant formula. Humanmilk oligosaccharides (HMOs) possess anti-infective properties againstpathogens in the infant gastrointestinal tract, such as Salmonella, Listeria,and Campylobacter, by flooding the infant gastrointestinal tract with decoysthat bind the pathogens and keep them off the intestinal wall.2.
1 COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK (PROTEINS,CARBOHYDRATES AND FATTY ACIDS)Human milk is made up of 3.8% of fats, 1.0%of proteins and7% carbohydrates. As the infant grows their needs change and the makeup of thehuman milk adapt to these needs. For example the milk is thinner with a highcontent of lactose during nursing season there after the milk gets thicker andcreamier with high fats content as the baby needs for proper growth of infants.During early lactation, the protein content in human milk ranges from 1.
4–1.6g/100 mL, to 0.8–1.0 g/100 mL after three to four months of lactation, to0.7–0.8 g/100 mL after six months.
Proteins in breast milk are divided in to two the caseinand the whey proteins these are in the ratio of 40:60 respectively. Whey isdomain over the casein proteins that is because they are much easier to digestover the casein proteins, during the early stages of lactation. Moving forwardto the hind-milk, the ratio changes to 50:50. Fats content change depending onthe maternal diet and to weight gain during pregnancy, so the more the mothergains weight during pregnancy the more the fat content she will have in her breastmilk.In distinction protein and fats, lactose is almost alwaysconstant throughout the lactation period. It is important to keep levels oflactose constant in breast milk because many carbohydrate-based bioactivecompounds such oligosaccharides, are attached to lactose.
If thesmall intestine does not produce enough of an enzyme (lactase) to digest thesesugar complexes, lactose malabsorption and intolerance syndromes can beobserved. Lactase deficiency malabsorption and disease are extremely rare in theexclusively breastfed infant. Table1.1Gross composition, protein profile, and fatty acids in human and bovinemilk Human milk Bovine milk Gross composition (%) Protein 1.
00 3.40 Caseins 0.3 2.6 Whey protein 0.
7 0.8 Casein: Whey protein 30:70 80:20 Fat 3.80 3.50 Lactose 7.00 5.00 3.
BIOACTIVITY OF (PROTEINS,CARBOHYDRATES AND FATTY ACIDS) IN HUMAN MILK Bioactivityis the effect of a given agent on a living organism or on a living tissue.PROTEINSThe differencein the proteins of breast milk result in the different amino acids profiledepending on the lactation stages. The amino acid glutamine is nearly 20 timeshigher in mature milk than its lowest value in colostrum and is alsoresponsible for providing hetoglutaric acid for citric acid cycle, possiblyacting as a neurotransmitter in the brain ,it also serve as an energy surfacefor intestinal cells.
Whey is mainly composed of alpha – lactalbumin, lactaferrinand secretory 1gA, some include lysozyme, folate-binding protein, bifidus factor,casein, lipase and amylase, alpha1-antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin,and haptocorrin .These proteins are broken down by ingestion to release aminoacids to be easily absorbed and used by the body, as an examplealpha-lactalbumin is important for the synthesis of lactose and binding of Caand Zn. Figure1.1 showing production of major bioactive peptides from milk proteins FATTY ACIDS Fats are indispensable as they provide energyand also help develop the central nervous system. Milk contains 3% – 5 %of fatsit also entails two highly important fatty acids, linoleic acid(C18:2w6) at a percentage of 15 and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3w3) at 0.35%.These two fatty acids are, respectively, converted to arachidonic acid (AA,C20:4w6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5w3), the last of which is furtherconverted to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6w3).
AA, EPA and DHA are vital forregulating growth, inflammatory responses, immune function, vision, cognitivedevelopment and motor systems in neonates. Long chain polyunsaturated fattyacids are transferred from mother to foetus in the third trimester through theplacenta, and to infants through breast milk after birth and during this stagemaximum synthesis of brain tissue takes place.CARBOHYDRATESHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) retain anti-infective chattelsagainst pathogens in the infant gastrointestinal tract, such as Salmonella,Listeria, and Campylobacter, by flooding the infant gastrointestinal tract withinducements that bind the pathogens and keep them off the intestinal wall.Oligosaccharides also play a vigorous role in the development of a diverse andbalanced microbiota, crucial for appropriate innate and adaptive immuneresponses, and help colonize up to 90% of the infant biome. COMPARISONOF HUMAN MILK AND INFANT FORMULAPopular studies by health care professionals is thatordinary infant formula made from cows milk, goat milk condensed milk, driedmilk and evaporated milk or any other milk beverage should not be given toinfants or children under the age of one.
This is because of difference incomposition of milk that have been revealed by research over a decade ago. Bothinfant formulas and breast milk differ on a wide range of aspects. TABLE 1.2 SHOWING ACOMPARISON OF PROTEINS, CARBPHYDRATES AND FATTY ACIDS OF WHOLE INFANT ANDBREAST MILK (PER 100G) Table 1.2 PROTEINSTable 1.
2 shows that proteins content In 100gof infant formula made from cows milk (5.6%) is more than that of human milk,this is linked to the amount of proteins in the milk is linked to how long aparticular species of animal to grow in size. Growing calves need more proteinsto enable them to grow quickly. Human infants on the other hand needs less ofproteins more fats as their energies are expected primarily in the developmentof brain, spinal cord and nerves.FATTY ACIDSInstant formula that include cow’s milk lipidsand milk fat membrane entrants were found to be more similar to the structureand composition of human milk. However many infant formulas use vegetablelipids as they are cheaper then cows lipids. SIMILAC, S-26 GOLD and hiptomilhave vegetable oil as sole source of fats. Furthermore natural milk containsthe correct proportion of lipids which are more suitable for human infants.
CARBOHYDRATESCow’s milk has a lowerlactose content compared to human milk; lactose contains galactose, a kind of”brain sugar” that is needed in the development of the myelin sheath thatsurrounds and sequesters nerves .Neonates naturally have a high percentage ofbifidus flora in their intestines to expedite milk digestion. The beta-lactosein human milk maintains a healthy culture of bifidus flora, whereas thealpha-lactose of cow’s milk is unable to properly maintain ahealthy culture of bifidus bacteria. In the absence of bifidus,harmful bacteria flourish, producing damaging by-products. TABLE1.
3SHOWING DIFFERENCE IN NUTRIENTS OF HUMAN MILK AND INFANT FORMULA NUTRIENT FACTOR BREAST MILK CONTAINS FORMULA CONTAINS COMMENT Fats Rich in brain-building omega 3s, namely DHA and AA Automatically adjusts to infant’s needs; levels decline as baby gets older Rich in cholesterol Nearly completely absorbed Contains fat-digesting enzyme, lipase No DHA Doesn’t adjust to infant’s needs No cholesterol Not completely absorbed No lipase Fat is the most important nutrient in breastmilk; the absence of cholesterol and DHA, vital nutrients for growing brains and bodies, may predispose a child to adult heart and central nervous system diseases. Leftover, unabsorbed fat accounts for unpleasant smelling stools in formula-fed babies. Protein Soft, easily-digestible whey More completely absorbed; higher in the milk of mothers who deliver preterm Lactoferrin for intestinal health Lysozyme, an antimicrobial Rich in brain and body building protein components Rich in growth factors Contains sleep-inducing proteins Harder-to-digest casein curds Not completely absorbed, more waste, harder on kidneys No lactoferrin, or only a trace No lysozyme Deficient or low in some brain-and body-building proteins Deficient in growth factors Does not contain as many sleep-inducing proteins. Infants aren’t allergic to human milk protein.
Carbohydrates Rich in lactose Rich in oligosaccharides, which promote intestinal health No lactose in some formulas Deficient in oligosaccharides Lactose is considered an important carbohydrate for brain development. Studies show the level of lactose in the milk of a species correlates with the size of the brain of that species. CONCLUSIONBreastmilk is the best when it comes to infant development and growth as it hasproteins essential for proper growth and they are easier for digestion .For new-bornsare unable to get adequate breast milk from the mother, infant formula is usedas a substitute.Thereforewe strongly disagree with the use of instant formula as it has no antibodiesthus it does not add any protection against infection and illnesses that breastmilk does. REFERENCES · Department of Neonatology and Division of Translational Research, BethIsrael Deaconess Medical Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, [email protected]
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