Introduction Cloudcomputing is the process of computing large farms and store resources usinginternet. We refer network-centric computing and network-centric content whenwe use resources from distant data centers instead of local servers. The twonew computing models are utility computing model in which users pays as theyuse the computing resources and the cloud computing model in which is embracedmy major IT companies. The major clouding computing delivery models areSoftware-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure-as-a-Service(Iaas). SaaS, Paas and Iaas are further classified into public, private, hybridand community cloud based on the cloud location.
Network-CentricComputing and Network-Centric Content Network-centric computing andNetwork-centric contents have many developments like utility computing and Gridcomputing. Grid computing is a system in which many physical systems arearranged together for each domain. In utility computing,users can pay for the services they have used. The concept of utility computingcame up due to the creation of virtual versions servers like storage andoperating systems. Main advantages of utility computing are the low operationalcost. This became available to any type of firm as it is a pay for use basic.Cloud computing is thenext level of the utility computing.
It is great for IT operations ordevelopment team to develop, built, deploy and run their application which canrun faster and improve in scalability without having any concerns on locationof underlying infrastructure. With cloud we can have a good back-up in case ofany failures; Applications runs quickly as there is an option of creatingseparate instance for cases such as peak loads; Multiple application can be runin one computer such as VMware; Initialization and maintains cost is low . Any type of static ordynamic media irrespective of stored media or the live media is referred tocontent. It is assumed that the future internet will be content-centric as thedevelopment of visualized links convert internet to support the quality. Withcontent-centric users can get back the data from most exact location in aminimum download time. Data-intensive,network-intensive, Systems use thin-clients, Infrastructure allows workflow arethe main characteristic of network-centric and content-centric. The advantagesare data sharing with high security, cost reduction as we pay as we use, elasticitywe can use other instances at peak-load.
Peer-to-PeerSystem Peer-to-Peer(P2P) is decentralized model in which each system/user has same type ofcapabilities. Either user can initiate the communication request. P2P allowsusers to control many parameters such as number of connections at a time,connect or avoid any system/user.Example by Instructor in our class – In a small firmeach department is assigned with a separate domain. Human resources have aseparate domain and the IT department has a separate domain and these twodomain are provided with a switch and are connected to the server throughrouters.
Typesof CloudDeepening on the location of the server, size,management and user population cloud is classified as:Private cloud: This is owned by a singleorganization. In this type of cloud, the organization doesn’t sell the serviceand it is solely used by the organization. Often managed by the organization orby a third party. Private clouds are expensive and these are not suitable forsmall firms.· Instructors mentioned in the class thatwe have a Tera byte server we can start own cloud.
Public cloud: This type of cloud is for generalpublic, basically internet. This type of cloud is not suitable for everyorganization. This is a pay per use service. Communitycloud: This type of cloud is shared by several organizations. It is managed byorganization or a third party service.Hybrid cloud: Use of two or more different clouds iscalled hybrid cloud. Depending on the firm’s purpose they can use a private andpublic cloud which is termed as hybrid cloud.
Cloudcomputing delivery models Based on the service offered by the cloud, it isclassified as:Software-as-a-Service (Saas): Users can access tothe service on pay per use basic. Applications are provided by the service.Users do not have any control on the infrastructure of the service; they cannotmanage the operations like storage of the service. Just with the simplesubscription they can use the services such as Gamil, Google docs, Dropbox,iCloud.
Platform-as-a-Service (Paas): Users can deploy anapplication using the programming languages supported by the service in thistype of service. PaaS service users don’t have access to control theinfrastructure of the cloud and they cannot manage any operations like storage,security in the cloud service. Users only have access to make any changes tothe application which they have deployed in the cloud. This service is notsuitable if the software is changed to improve the performance.Infrastructure-as-a-Service (Iaas): In this type ofservice users can deploy their application and they have access to storage,install firewall security but users don’t have access to the infrastructure ofthe cloud. Activities necessary to support cloud are:Ø Servicemanagement like call centers, billing and accounting, technical support,backups, etc.Ø Securitymanagement like authentication ID, virus or malware protection, incidenceresponse and firewalls.
Ø Customerservices like online support like calls and chats, personalization.Ø Developmentand data management which falls under Integration service.Ethicalissues in CloudUnauthorized access,fail in the networks, data corruption are major risks and it is even difficultto find out the point of cause with the complex system. In the IT organizationsmost of the employees such as administrators, developers have access to the allemployees personal data as well as customers personal data. They need the datato maintain system and to resolve any issues. Customers trust and pay to thefirm and provide their personal information and it is the firms duty to protectthe data.
We already have thesensitive data in the cloud through most of the cloud service providers. It isimportant to have some rules and regulations to protect the data. Though thecloud service providers provide some security, firms should come up with theirsecurity methods to protect the data in the cloud.· Instructor’s simple example in class –Even though our doors come with blots and locks, few people block the doorswith chairs and other object to ensure more security.
Similarly, though thecloud service providers provides their security on firm’s data, even firms hasto come up with an extra level of security by their own security methods. CloudVulnerabilities Vulnerability is the weakness which is used by the attackers for their personalgain. This vulnerability can be present in software, network, and system or bythe security methods which we use.
Most of the organizations believe that theydon’t have to worry about the security of cloud service as could serviceproviders will take care of them. This can also happen while merging to cloudservice. Organizations have to consider some vulnerability such as sessioncookies, use of virtual machines in which physical server run many machines. Wealso have to consider the cloud may not be always 100% available during poweroutage. Delete data from old cloud service provider. So, we have to choose aprovider who can allow moving on easily when necessary. · Instructor’s important note on some ofthe certification which has better future scope -1) CompTIASecurity+ certification 2) CertifiedInformation Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is prior step to CompTIASecurity+I believe, SystemsSecurity Certified Practitioner (SSCP) certification is stepping stone to CISSPChallenges faced by cloud computing Securityis the main challenge faced by cloud.
Public cloud can’t protect the personalinformation which is related to health domain. In SaaS the personal data is stored in most vulnerableway. Though the information is stored by encrypting the data, it has to decryptwhile returning back where the attacks can take place.
Otherchallenge is resource management on cloud such as allocating capacity,balancing the load and administration creation. Standardization is the otherchallenge faced by the cloud. Wehave to realize the complexity of the cloud and come up to face the challenges.There are many advantages using the cloud if successful in facing challenges.