IntroductionChildhoodis the period where every individual learns the basics of almost everything.Child development refers to the biological psychological and emotional changesthat occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence thenthrough adulthood, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasingautonomy. Every child has certain basic emotional needs, which thought to be asatisfied to ensure his optimal development as an emotionally matureindividual, who can relate meaningfully with the society. WHO considers”preschool to be the period between 4 to 6 years with generally encompasses thetime from onset of developing habit disorders”.
Thedevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions with onset in thedevelopmental period. The disorder typically manifest early in developmentoften before the child enters the gradeschool, and that are characterized by developmental deficit that produceimpairments of personal, social, academic etc. The range of developmentaldisorder varies from very specific limitations of social skills orintelligence.
The neurodevelopment disorders frequently co-occur for exampleindividual with Autism often have intellectual disability and many childrenwith attention deficit disorder also have a specific learning disability. Forsome disorders the clinical presentation includes symptoms of excess as well asdeficits and delay in achieving expected milestones, it can only diagnosed onlywhen the characteristic deficit of social communication are accompaniedexcessively repetitive behaviours, restricted interest, and insistence ofsameness. So the developmental deficits and its symptoms in childhood can bediagnosed at the time of pre-schooling because children shows most of theirinterest, behaviour and skills during this period, and also many of thedevelopmental disorders have the onset during this periodTeachersplay a pivotal role in the development of children. Teacher’s skills inmanaging and guiding the class are vital. This includes efficient dailypractices and the use of teaching materials, as well as controlling disturbingfactors and problem behavior within the class.
The amount and quality ofinteraction in learning and teacher-student relations also affect theefficiency of learning. Interaction in learning includes, for example, feedbackfrom the teacher, various questions asked by the teacher and instructionsconcerning knowledge enrichment, all of which affect the development of thechild’s information structures. Furthermore, social interaction outside ofteaching situations is particularly important for the development of thechildren. An effective teacher is onewho is proficient in planning and implementing teaching programmes in additionto making sound decisions regarding geared towards catering for individual differences among learners. Thesupport that the child and his/her family receive from the school, as well asthe cooperation between the home and the school, is essential for theassessment of learning disabilities and the implementation of interventionstrategies. Cooperation among students, parents, the school and the communityin general is vital for the well-being of the student.
Moreover, the support ofthe heads of school for the teacher helps both parties to develop goodpractices and inspires a belief in the significance of their respective rolesat the school and its organization. Accordingly, advice and instructions fromsuch key figures can be helpful in teachers’ daily work, particularly in thedevelopment of explicit decisions relating to work and teaching. The onsets ofmany childhood disorders are during the period of pre- school so the primaryschool teachers have a significant role in the identification of childhooddisorder’s symptoms in children. It is important to have knowledge aboutchildhood disorders among primary school teachers. The support that the child and hisher family receive from the teachersas well as having knowledge among school teachers about childhood disorders isessential for the assessment of childhood disorders and the referral ofchildren. Developmental deficits and its symptoms in childhood can be diagnosedat the time of pre-schooling because also many of the developmental disordershave the onset during this period. Children show most of their interest,behaviour and skills during this period.
Cooperation among students, parentsand teachers in general is vital for the well being of the student withspecific disorders. Accordingly knowledge and instruction about variouschildhood disorders can be helpful in teachers’ daily work, particularly in thedevelopment of children with any development disorder. In this study theresearcher assess the knowledge of primary school teachers regarding childhooddisorders, because early identification of disorder is very important.
ifsomeone failed to identify the developmental disorders, in future it may leadsto severe psychiatric illnesses. If the teachers are aware about the symptomsand characteristics of childhood disorders, the disorders can be earlyidentified as possible, the teachers will accept the child without anymisconceptions, and the child will get special care and attention in the classroom.Objective of the studyThe main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge of primary school teachers aboutchildhood disorders before and after intervention. Materialsand MethodsThestudy intended to assess the knowledge of primary school teachers about childhood disorders.
Thestudy has carried out among the same group of respondents( Pre- Post). The level of knowledge of respondents on childhood disorders are assessed by using a self prepared questionnaire before and after intervention . The self preparedquestionnaire included of 105 questions. Hence the study is quasi experimental in nature.
The researcher prepared an intervention package for implementing among the respondents.The intervention dealt with childhood disorders(Attention deficit disorder,conduct disorder, Specific learning disorder, Habit disorder, Autism), symptoms,etiology and intervention etc. And methods to diagnose childhood disorders,importance of having knowledge on childhood disorders and institutions whichdeals with it. ResultsandDiscussionThe following data explains the results of the study carried out in the aspects of Knowledge level onchildhood disorders among the respondents before and after intervention. Knowledge On Attention deficit disorder Level Pre intervention Percentage Post intervention Percentage Less than 28 18 60 3 10 More than 28 12 40 27 90 Total 30 100 30 100 Table I: Knowledgeon Attention deficit disorderTable1 denotes the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Attention deficit disorderbefore and after intervention.Themean value is 28.
The mean value is calculated as bench mark because toidentify the knowledge level of respondents before and after the intervention. Pre-interventionresults show that, 60 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Attentiondeficit disorder. Post-intervention results shows that primary teachers withless knowledge regarding Attention deficit disorder decreased to10 percent. 40% of respondent have high level of knowledge on Attention deficit disorder asbefore the intervention. After intervention the knowledge level increased to90%. There is 50% increase to respondent’s knowledge on Attention deficitdisorder among children before and after intervention.An empirical study wasconducted byHussein SA, Syed EU in2010 to assessthe knowledge and misperceptions of ADD of primary school teachers in 35primary schools. A demographic questionnaire was administered along with theKADDS (Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders Scale) to 824 teachers at 35selected schools.
The response rate was 67%. The study findings revealed thatteachers overall knowledge of ADD was poor (42.6%). The study revealed thatoverall knowledge of ADD is significantly related to teacher’s sense of selfefficacy.
Both knowledge and attitude greatly determines the outcome ofthe diagnosis and treatment of ADD. Hence it is highly important to identify theknowledge of primary school teachers regarding ADD in children. Figure 1:Knowledge on Attention deficit disorder Knowledge on Conduct disorders Level Pre intervention Percentage Post Intervention Percentage Less than 35 15 50 2 6.
67 More than 35 15 50 28 93.33 Total 30 100 30 100 Table 2: Knowledge on conduct disordersTable2 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on conduct disorder before andafter intervention.Themean value is 35. The mean value is calculated as benchmark to calculate thedifference between high and low level knowledge. Pre-interventionresults shows that,50 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Conductdisorder. Post-intervention results shows that respondents with less knowledgeregarding conduct disorder decreased to 6.
7 percent. 50 % of respondent havehigh level of knowledge on Conduct disorder as before the intervention. Afterintervention the knowledge level increased to 93.33%. There is 43.33% increaseto respondent’s knowledge on Conduct disorder before and after intervention.The school environment is the mostimportant influence in a child’s life in promoting social, emotional andacademic development. Teachers play a very important role in identifying thebehavioral problems among children.
Hence, the knowledge of teachers in thisarea is helpful in identifying and analyzing what the problematic behavioractually means to the individual child. This can lead to an early referral tohealth services that can change the behavior and result in a more productiveadaptation for the child. This created an interest in the investigator toassess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge ofprimary school teachers regarding conduct disorders among children. Figure 2:Knowledge on conduct disorder knowledgeon Autism Level Pre Intervention Percentage Post Intervention Percentage Less than 26 14 46.6 3 10 More than 26 16 53.3 27 90 Total 30 100 30 100 Table 3: Knowledge on AutismTable3 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Autism before and afterintervention.Themean value is 26. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate thedifference between high and low level of knowledge.
Pre-interventionresult shows that 46.6 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Autism. Apost-intervention result shows that respondents with less knowledge regardingAutism decreased to 10 percent.
53.3% of respondent have high level ofknowledge on Autism as before the intervention. After intervention theknowledge level increased to 90%.
There is 36.7% increase in the respondent’sknowledge on Autism before and after intervention.A study was conducted by Lian WB, Ying SH, Tean SC, Lin DC, Lian YC, Yun HL to assess the preschool teacher’s knowledge, attitude andpractices on childhood developmental behavior among 503 preschool teachers aged30 to 44 years. The result shows that pass rate of knowledge score of autisticdisorder was >40%. The study concluded that preschool teachers need morecare to improve their skills and special need education.
Figure3: Knowledge on Autism Knowledge On Specific Learning Disorder Level Pre Intervention Percentage Post Intervention Percentage Less than 33 15 50 0 0 More than 33 15 50 30 100 Total 30 100 30 100 Table 4:Knowledge on Specific learningdisorders Table4 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Specific Learning Disorderbefore and after intervention.Themean value is 33. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate thedifference between high and low level of knowledge. Pre-interventionresult shows that 50 percent of respondents have less knowledge on SpecificLearning Disorder. A post-intervention result shows that there are norespondents with less knowledge regarding Specific Learning Disorder after theintervention. 50% of respondents have high level of knowledge on SpecificLearning Disorder before the intervention.
After intervention the knowledgelevel increased to 100%. There is 50% increase in the respondent’s knowledge onSpecific Learning Disorder before and after intervention.A study conductedby Dalwai S, Kanade D, Sane M, Chatterjee S to assess the awareness andsensitivity among parents, teachers, school management and counselors regardinglearning disability in 35 schools of Mumbai found that 69% of the schools donot conduct learning disability training programmes for teachers. When askedabout the specific academic difficulties the child faces, 37% teachers were notaware, 49% had minimal awareness and 14% had adequate awareness. 69% of schoolsdo not have a counselor 83% do not havethe facility of a resource room. 83% do not have a remedial educator. Only 11schools of the 35 interviewed send children to the hospital for certificationand the remaining schools refer to any other source.
Figure 4 : Knowledgeon Specific learning disorder Knowledgeon Habit Disorder Level Pre Intervention Percentage Post Intervention Percentage Less than 26 16 53.3 5 16.66 More than 26 14 46.6 25 83.3 TOTAL 30 100 30 100 Table 5: Knowledge on Habit disorderTable5 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Habit Disorders before andafter intervention.
Themean value is 26. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate thedifference between high and low level knowledge. Pre-interventionresult shows that 53.3 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Habitdisorder. Post-intervention result shows that respondents with less knowledgeregarding Habit disorders decreased to 16.66 percent. 46.
6% of respondent havehigh level of knowledge on Habit disorders as before the intervention. Afterintervention the knowledge level increased to 83.3%. There is 36.
7% increase inthe respondent’s knowledge on Habit disorder before and after intervention. Figure 5: Knowledge on Habit disorders. ConclusionThechildhood disorders are usually firstdiagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. This study is about theknowledge among primary school teachers about childhood disorders. Theresearcher assessed the knowledge level of a group of primary school teachersregarding Attention deficit disorder, Autism, Conduct disorder, Specificlearning disorder and habit disorders. The results of this study conclude thatmost of the teachers do not have attended any kind of training programs relatedto children’s mental health. The study reveals that the knowledge level ofprimary school teachers is increased after giving intervention. The primaryschool teachers need to have knowledge about childhood disorders because theyhave an important role in moulding a personality or behaviour of a child.