Introduction In the followingarticle “Disrupted Futures: Unpacking Metaphors of Marginalization in evictionand resettlement and narratives”, writer Kavita Ramakrishna examined how language can beeffective in increasing the performativity of the marginalized people of thecity.
Thisarticle is about the eruption of significance of the utilization of metaphorsas a tool to improve the effectiveness of once act or process. Writer examineshow the idea of utilization of metaphors become apparent during Delhiresettlement Colony which recognizes the encounter of the people living inslums to forced eviction as well as the marginalization on the outer edge ofthe city. Also examines how people reacted to the displacement event andultimately declared a place in the society by themselves. Thewriter emphasizes on utilization of metaphors in understanding how marginalizednot only perceive themselves to be excluded but also accept this as their fate.Recurrent use of metaphors was seen during the ethnographic research to narratetheir distress of forced eviction from slums in Delhi and living andresettlement Colony. InEchoing Le Febvre, Auyero (2000; 111) persuades research focusing on”social polarization inscribed not only in the space but also inconsciousness”. This led to the utilization of metaphors as a tool tounderstand feelings of people effortlessly.
Utilisationof metaphor is not only limited to metaphor as representative device into thespeeches but also examined how people felt disappointed and unsatisfied as anurban citizen. They insisted that they have been restricted from attaining theiraims, and this become an everyday experiences. Thewriter here argues that people encounter a “spatiotemporal disruption”where their futures within the city remain uncertain. Metaphors and marginalityWiththe usage of metaphors in understanding the experiences of people it becomesmore of profound reality.Howit(1998), suggested to examine metaphors distinctly as they change to everydaylanguage and mind set without further enquiry.
One thing is to be noted herethat politics and metaphors are inseparable as suggested by Creswell (1997),more importantly metaphors are generated and strengthen by the powerful people,leading to the conflict amongst the powerless within the city. The writer emphasizeson the incorporation of metaphors into community as well as individual’sexperience add to the effective act, moreover the powerless can project theirown metaphor onto the society.Spatiotemporal Disruption Writerfurther argued that most of the studies has examined spatial process ascommunicated metaphors but neglected the temporal context of it. So,incorporating both the elements we now have spatiotemporal disruption, asdiscussed earlier when people encounter spatiotemporal disruption their futureswithin the city becomes so uncertain. “Researchersare focusing on people experiences of uncertainty across the world, people havebeen persuade by those with power to believe in some vision of thefuture”, as narrated by Jeffrey (2010a). Jeffrey took an example of a manfrom Uttar Pradesh who experiences the uncertainty due to prolongedunemployment. This case is parallel to the case and resettlement Colony wherethe ambitions and hopes of people got disturbed by the reality of the colony.
The Myth of Resettlementand state on the marginsWriterchoose Bawana, the resettlement Colony for the research, which is located onthe outer edge of Delhi. Many of the residents were from the settlements alongthe river Yamuna. They were displaced in the year 2004, for a Riversidedevelopment project. Over 2,00,000 people have displaced from the slum areasbetween the year 2004 and 2010, for building infrastructures needed for theCommonwealth Games Village.
Moreover people living in the Bawana were shifted.The affected people were mostly from Bihar, West Bengal and UP, have beenliving in the slums for 15 to 30 years on average. Those who didn’t got theplots are assumed to have returned to their particular villages or built squatterselsewhere in the city.
Moreover the residents were supposed to stay there foronly 10 years. Bawana resettlement Colony was founded in 2004. Many wereworried about what would happen after 10 years. With provision of suitableresettlement, still many of them were unable to travel to their works, resultingin no savings for the future. Keeping this problem in concerned Delhigovernment has a proposal of making Bawana and surrounding an Industrial Area,so as to create about 1,38,300 jobs through the development of industrial area.
Currently many people are engaged in the existing factories and earned veryless. Aparadox resulted here, people are struggling for legal investment for makingtheir home secure but are forced to access services illegally. As a result ofwhich resettlement Colony appears more like a slum. Writerfocuses on three most important metaphors which were being used by the peopleliving in the resettlement colony during the interview, “Bawana is avillage”, “When we first arrived it was a jungle” and “Thegovernment threw us away”.
The villageInow start with explaining first metaphor that “Bawana is a village”. Manypeople used this metaphor to describe the colony. Village in the sense that itis of very little worth, as people