In the following
article “Disrupted Futures: Unpacking Metaphors of Marginalization in eviction
and resettlement and narratives”, writer Kavita Ramakrishna examined how language can be
effective in increasing the performativity of the marginalized people of the
article is about the eruption of significance of the utilization of metaphors
as a tool to improve the effectiveness of once act or process. Writer examines
how the idea of utilization of metaphors become apparent during Delhi
resettlement Colony which recognizes the encounter of the people living in
slums to forced eviction as well as the marginalization on the outer edge of
the city. Also examines how people reacted to the displacement event and
ultimately declared a place in the society by themselves.
writer emphasizes on utilization of metaphors in understanding how marginalized
not only perceive themselves to be excluded but also accept this as their fate.
Recurrent use of metaphors was seen during the ethnographic research to narrate
their distress of forced eviction from slums in Delhi and living and
Echoing Le Febvre, Auyero (2000; 111) persuades research focusing on
“social polarization inscribed not only in the space but also in
consciousness”. This led to the utilization of metaphors as a tool to
understand feelings of people effortlessly.
of metaphor is not only limited to metaphor as representative device into the
speeches but also examined how people felt disappointed and unsatisfied as an
urban citizen. They insisted that they have been restricted from attaining their
aims, and this become an everyday experiences.
writer here argues that people encounter a “spatiotemporal disruption”
where their futures within the city remain uncertain.
Metaphors and marginality
the usage of metaphors in understanding the experiences of people it becomes
more of profound reality.
(1998), suggested to examine metaphors distinctly as they change to everyday
language and mind set without further enquiry. One thing is to be noted here
that politics and metaphors are inseparable as suggested by Creswell (1997),
more importantly metaphors are generated and strengthen by the powerful people,
leading to the conflict amongst the powerless within the city. The writer emphasizes
on the incorporation of metaphors into community as well as individual’s
experience add to the effective act, moreover the powerless can project their
own metaphor onto the society.
further argued that most of the studies has examined spatial process as
communicated metaphors but neglected the temporal context of it. So,
incorporating both the elements we now have spatiotemporal disruption, as
discussed earlier when people encounter spatiotemporal disruption their futures
within the city becomes so uncertain.
are focusing on people experiences of uncertainty across the world, people have
been persuade by those with power to believe in some vision of the
future”, as narrated by Jeffrey (2010a). Jeffrey took an example of a man
from Uttar Pradesh who experiences the uncertainty due to prolonged
unemployment. This case is parallel to the case and resettlement Colony where
the ambitions and hopes of people got disturbed by the reality of the colony.
The Myth of Resettlement
and state on the margins
choose Bawana, the resettlement Colony for the research, which is located on
the outer edge of Delhi. Many of the residents were from the settlements along
the river Yamuna. They were displaced in the year 2004, for a Riverside
development project. Over 2,00,000 people have displaced from the slum areas
between the year 2004 and 2010, for building infrastructures needed for the
Commonwealth Games Village. Moreover people living in the Bawana were shifted.
The affected people were mostly from Bihar, West Bengal and UP, have been
living in the slums for 15 to 30 years on average. Those who didn’t got the
plots are assumed to have returned to their particular villages or built squatters
elsewhere in the city. Moreover the residents were supposed to stay there for
only 10 years. Bawana resettlement Colony was founded in 2004. Many were
worried about what would happen after 10 years. With provision of suitable
resettlement, still many of them were unable to travel to their works, resulting
in no savings for the future. Keeping this problem in concerned Delhi
government has a proposal of making Bawana and surrounding an Industrial Area,
so as to create about 1,38,300 jobs through the development of industrial area.
Currently many people are engaged in the existing factories and earned very
paradox resulted here, people are struggling for legal investment for making
their home secure but are forced to access services illegally. As a result of
which resettlement Colony appears more like a slum.
focuses on three most important metaphors which were being used by the people
living in the resettlement colony during the interview, “Bawana is a
village”, “When we first arrived it was a jungle” and “The
government threw us away”.
now start with explaining first metaphor that “Bawana is a village”. Many
people used this metaphor to describe the colony. Village in the sense that it
is of very little worth, as people